Novel ultramicrobacterial isolates from a deep Greenland ice core represent a proposed new species, Chryseobacterium greenlandense sp. nov.
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Three novel orange, ultramicrobacterial isolates, UMB10, UMB14, and UMB34T were isolated from enrichment cultures inoculated with a melted 3,043 m deep Greenland ice core sample. Phylogenetic analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that the isolates belonged to a single species within the genus Chryseobacterium. They were most closely related to Chryseobacterium aquaticum (99.3%), Chryseobacterium soli (97.1%), and Chryseobacterium soldanellicola (96.9%). Genomic hybridization showed low levels of relatedness between UMB34T and C. aquaticum and C. soldanellicola (19–30%) and C. soli and Chryseobacterium jejuense (45–56%). Comparative genomic fingerprinting analysis using the enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) sequence showed nearly identical banding patterns for the three isolates and these patterns were distinct from those of C. aquaticum, C. soldanellicola, C. soli, and C. jejuense. The cells were short rods, lacked flagella, had cell volumes of <0.1 μm3, formed buds and smaller protrusions (blebs), produced copious extracellular material and a flexirubin type pigment. UMB34T produced acids from carbohydrates and utilized glucose and maltose although it did not assimilate mannose. The DNA G + C was 39.6–41.6 mol%. Based on the differences from validly named Chryseobacterium species, it was concluded that these isolates represent a new species for which the name, Chryseobacterium greenlandense is proposed. The type strain is UMB34T (=CIP 110007T = NRRL B-59357).
KeywordsChryseobacterium greenlandense Flavobacteriaceae Ultramicrobacteria Glacial isolates Ice core
This research was supported by National Science Foundation grant MO-0347475, Department of Energy grant DE-FG02-93ER20117 and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Astrobiology Institute under NASA–Ames Cooperative Agreement NNA04CC06A. We thank Missy Hazen for help with the electron microscopy work, Dr. Deborah Grove and Candace Price with DNA–DNA hybridization analysis and Alisa Inthavongsa with growth assays.
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