Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans, sp. nov.; facultatively anaerobic, psychrotolerant iron-, and sulfur-oxidizing acidophiles isolated from metal mine-impacted environments
- 1.5k Downloads
Phenotypic and genotypic analysis was carried out on four iron- and sulfur-oxidizing acidophilic bacteria (the “NO-37 group”) isolated from different parts of the world. 16S rRNA phylogeny showed that they are highly related to each other, but are less related to the type strain of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans. The NO-37 group isolates are obligate chemolithoautotrophs, facultative anaerobes, diazotrophic, and psychrotolerant. They are less tolerant of extremely low pH, and in contrast to At. ferrooxidans T, all of the NO-37 group isolates are motile. The GC contents of genomic DNA of the NO-37 group isolates were around 56 mol% and the DNA–DNA hybridization value between genomic DNA of isolate NO-37 and At. ferrooxidans T was 37%. It also appears that the bacteria of the NO-37 group have a different biochemical mechanism for oxidizing ferrous iron than At. ferrooxidans T; the gene coding for the archetypal rusticyanin (RusA) was not detected in any of the NO-37 group isolates, rather a gene coding for a homologous protein (RusB) was amplified from three of the four novel isolates. Isolates of the NO-37 group clearly belong to a species that is different to those already recognized in the genus Acidithiobacillus, for which the name Acidithiobacillus ferrivorans is proposed.
KeywordsAcid mine drainage Acidophile Acidithiobacillus Bioleaching Biomining Iron Pyrite Psychrotolerant bacteria Sulfur
This study was carried out in the frame of BioMinE Project, supported by the European Commission under the Sixth Framework Programme for Research and Development (Contract NMP1-CT-500329-1). We wish to thank our various partners on the project for their contributions to the work reported in this paper. The authors would also like to thank Professor Jean Euzéby for his expert advice on bacterial nomenclature, Dr. Eleanor Jameson for conducting experiments on anaerobic growth of At. ferrivorans, and Mr. Pedro Galleguillos and Dr. Tadayoshi Kanao for measurement of specific iron oxidation rates. D.B.J. is grateful to the Royal Society (UK) for the award of an Industrial Fellowship.
- Blake R, Johnson DB (2000) Phylogenetic and biochemical diversity among acidophilic bacteria that respire on iron. In: Lovley DR (ed) Environmental microbe-metal interactions. American Society of Microbiology Press, Washington, DC, pp 53–78Google Scholar
- Hallberg KB, Thomson HEC, Boeselt I, Johnson DB (2001) Aerobic and anaerobic sulfur metabolism by acidophilic bacteria. In: Ciminelli VST, Garcia O Jr (eds) Biohydrometallurgy: fundamentals, technology and sustainable development. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 423–431Google Scholar
- Johnson DB, Hallberg KB (2008) Carbon, iron and sulfur metabolism in acidophilic micro-organisms. Adv Microb Physiol 54:202–256Google Scholar
- Johnson DB, Kelso WI (1983) Detection of heterotrophic contaminants in cultures of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans and their elimination by subculturing in media containing copper sulphate. J Gen Microbiol 123:2969–2972Google Scholar
- Johnson DB, Bacelar-Nicolau P, Okibe N, Thomas A, Hallberg KB (2009) Characteristics of Ferrimicrobium acidiphilum gen. nov., sp. nov., and Ferrithrix thermotolerans gen. nov., sp. nov.: heterotrophic iron-oxidizing, extremely acidophilic actinobacteria. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 59:1082–1089 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kelly DP, Tuovinen OH (1972) Recommendation that the names Ferrobacillus ferrooxidans Leathen and Braley and Ferrobacillus sulfooxidans Kinsel be recognised as synonyms of Thiobacillus ferrooxidans Temple and Colmer. Int J Syst Bacteriol 22:170–172Google Scholar
- Kelly DP, Wood AP (2005) Genus Acidithiobacillus (Kelly and Wood 2000). In: Brenner DJ, Krieg NR, Staley JT (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology, second edition, volume two the Proteobacteria. Part B. The Gammaproteobacteria. Bergey’s Manual Trust, Michigan, pp 60–62Google Scholar
- Ludwig W, Strunk O, Westram R, Richter L, Meier H, Yadhukumar, Buchner A, Lai T, Steppi S, Jobb G, Forster W, Brettske I, Gerber S, Ginhart AW, Gross O, Grumann S, Hermann S, Jost R, Konig A, Liss T, Lussmann R, May M, Nonhoff B, Reichel B, Strehlow R, Stamatakis A, Stuckmann N, Vilbig A, Lenke M, Ludwig T, Bode A, Schleifer KH (2004) ARB: a software environment for sequence data. Nucleic Acids Res 32:1363–1371Google Scholar
- Mackintosh MEJ (1978) Nitrogen fixation by Thiobacillus ferrooxidans. J Gen Microbiol 105:215–218Google Scholar
- Rawlings DE, Johnson DB (eds) (2007) Biomining. Springer-Verlag, BerlinGoogle Scholar
- Ueda T, Suga Y, Yahiro N, Matsuguchi T (2005) Remarkable N2-fixing bacterial diversity detected in rice roots by molecular evolutionary analysis of nifH gene sequences. J Bacteriol 177:1414–1417Google Scholar