Proteomic analysis of Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 during growth at subzero temperatures
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It is crucial to examine the physiological processes of psychrophiles at temperatures below 4°C, particularly to facilitate extrapolation of laboratory results to in situ activity. Using two dimensional electrophoresis, we examined patterns of protein abundance during growth at 16, 4, and −4°C of the eurypsychrophile Psychrobacter cryohalolentis K5 and report the first identification of cold inducible proteins (CIPs) present during growth at subzero temperatures. Growth temperature substantially reprogrammed the proteome; the relative abundance of 303 of the 618 protein spots detected (∼31% of the proteins at each growth temperature) varied significantly with temperature. Five CIPs were detected specifically at −4°C; their identities (AtpF, EF-Ts, TolC, Pcryo_1988, and FecA) suggested specific stress on energy production, protein synthesis, and transport during growth at subzero temperatures. The need for continual relief of low-temperature stress on these cellular processes was confirmed via identification of 22 additional CIPs whose abundance increased during growth at −4°C (relative to higher temperatures). Our data suggested that iron may be limiting during growth at subzero temperatures and that a cold-adapted allele was employed at −4°C for transport of iron. In summary, these data suggest that low-temperature stresses continue to intensify as growth temperatures decrease to −4°C.
KeywordsPsychrophiles Proteome Low-temperature Psychrobacter Cold acclimation
Cold inducible protein
Cold acclimation protein
Cold shock protein
This work was supported through membership in the NASA Astrobiology Institute. C. Bakermans was supported by a National Academy of Sciences National Research Council (Postdoctoral Associateship 0385260). The 2DE gel work was performed at Argonne National Laboratory under funding from the US Department of Energy, Office of Biological and Environmental Research Microbial Genome Program under Contract W-31-109-ENG-38. Thanks to T. Khare (ANL) and B. Phinney (UC Davis) for work on preliminary studies.
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