Microarray analysis of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus exposed to gamma irradiation
- 356 Downloads
The remarkable survival of the hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus furiosus to ionizing radiation was previously demonstrated. Using a time course study and whole-genome microarray analyses of mRNA transcript levels, the genes and regulatory pathways involved in the repair of lesions produced by ionizing irradiation (oxidative damage and DNA strand breaks) in P. furiosus were investigated. Data analyses showed that radA, encoding the archaeal homolog of the RecA/Rad51 recombinase, was moderately up regulated by irradiation and that a putative DNA-repair gene cluster was specifically induced by exposure to ionizing radiation. This novel repair system appears to be unique to thermophilic archaea and bacteria and is suspected to be involved in translesion synthesis. Genes that encode for a putative Dps-like iron-chelating protein and two membrane-bound oxidoreductases were differentially expressed following gamma irradiation, potentially in response to oxidative stress. Surprisingly, the many systems involved in oxygen detoxification and redox homeostasis appeared to be constitutively expressed. Finally, we identified several transcriptional regulators and protein kinases highly regulated in response to gamma irradiation.
KeywordsArchaea Hyperthermophile DNA repair Ionizing radiation Oxidative stress Transcriptional analysis
We thank Peter Kennelly for help in analyzing the protein kinase sequences from P. furiosus, and Rhonda Holley-shank for technical support. This work was supported by funds from NASA (NCC9147 to JDR) and the Human Frontier Science Program (RG522002 to JDR).
- Christendat D, Yee A, Dharamsi A, Kluger Y, Savchenko A, Cort JR, Booth V, Mackereth CD, Saridakis V, Ekiel I, Kozlov G, Maxwell KL, Wu N, McIntosh LP, Gehring K, Kennedy MA, Davidson AR, Pai EF, Gerstein M, Edwards AM, Arrowsmith CH (2000) Structural proteomics of an archaeon. Nat Struct Biol 7:903–909PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Daly MJ, Gaidamakova EK, Matrosova VY, Vasilenko A, Zhai M, Venkateswaran A, Hess M, Omelchenko MV, Kostandarithes H M, Makarova KS, Wackett LP, Fredrickson JK, Ghosal D (2004) Accumulation of Mn(II) in Deinococcus radiodurans facilitates gamma-radiation resistance. Science 306:1025–1028PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- DiRuggiero J, Robb FT (2004) Early evolution of DNA repair mechanisms. In: Ribas de Pouplana L (eds) The genetic code, the origin of life. Landes Biosciences pp 474–485Google Scholar
- Friedberg EC, Walker GC, Siede W (1995) DNA repair and mutagenesis. ASM, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Liu Y, Zhou J, Omelchenko MV, Beliaev AS, Venkateswaran A, Stair J, Wu L, Thompson DK, Xu D, Rogozin IB, Gaidamakova EK, Zhai M, Makarova KS, Koonin EV, Daly MJ (2003) Transcriptome dynamics of Deinococcus radiodurans recovering from ionizing radiation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 100:4191–4196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Marchler-Bauer A, Anderson JB, Cherukuri PF, DeWeese-Scott C, Geer LY, Gwadz M, He S, Hurwitz DI, Jackson JD, Ke Z, Lanczycki CJ, Liebert CA, Liu C, Lu F, Marchler GH, Mullokandov M, Shoemaker BA, Simonyan V, Song JS, Thiessen PA, Yamashita RA, Yin JJ, Zhang D, Bryant S H (2005) CDD: a conserved domain database for protein classification. Nucleic Acids Res 33:D192–D196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Praul CA, Taylor WD (1997) Responses of Halobacterium halobium and Sulfolobus solfataricus to hydrogen peroxide and N-methyl-N′-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine [correction of N-methyl-N-nitrosoguanidine] exposure. Microbiol Res 152:257–260Google Scholar
- Tahara M, Ohsawa A, Saito S, Kimura M (2004) In vitro phosphorylation of initiation factor 2 alpha (aIF2 alpha) from hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus horikoshii OT3. J Biochem (Tokyo) 135:479–485Google Scholar
- Whitehead K, Kish A, Pan M, Kaur A, King N, Hohmann L, DiRuggiero J, Baliga NS (2006) Stress management: using a systems approach to understand stress response to gamma radiation. Mol Syst Biol (in press)Google Scholar