Genome-wide expression analysis of yeast response during exposure to 4°C
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Adaptation to temperature fluctuation is essential for the survival of all living organisms. Although extensive research has been done on heat and cold shock responses, there have been no reports on global responses to cold shock below 10°C or near-freezing. We examined the genome-wide expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae, following exposure to 4°C. Hierarchical cluster analysis showed that the gene expression profile following 4°C exposure from 6 to 48 h was different from that at continuous 4°C culture. Under 4°C exposure, the genes involved in trehalose and glycogen synthesis were induced, suggesting that biosynthesis and accumulation of those reserve carbohydrates might be necessary for cold tolerance and energy preservation. The observed increased expression of phospholipids, mannoproteins, and cold shock proteins (e.g., TIP1) is consistent with membrane maintenance and increased permeability of the cell wall at 4°C. The induction of heat shock proteins and glutathione at 4°C may be required for revitalization of enzyme activity, and for detoxification of active oxygen species, respectively. The genes with these functions may provide the ability of cold tolerance and adaptation to yeast cells.