, Volume 10, Issue 1, pp 71–78 | Cite as

Fatty acid and DNA analyses of Permian bacteria isolated from ancient salt crystals reveal differences with their modern relatives

  • Russell H. VreelandEmail author
  • William D. Rosenzweig
  • Tim Lowenstein
  • Cindy Satterfield
  • Antonio Ventosa
Original Paper


The isolation of living microorganisms from primary 250-million-year-old (MYA) salt crystals has been questioned by several researchers. The most intense discussion has arisen from questions about the texture and age of the crystals used, the ability of organisms to survive 250 million years when exposed to environmental factors such as radiation and the close similarity between 16S rRNA sequences in the Permian and modern microbes. The data in this manuscript are not meant to provide support for the antiquity of the isolated bacterial strains. Rather, the data presents several comparisons between the Permian microbes and other isolates to which they appear related. The analyses include whole cell fatty acid profiling, DNA–DNA hybridizations, ribotyping, and random amplified polymorphic DNA amplification (RAPD). These data show that the Permian strains, studied here, differ significantly from their more modern relatives. These differences are accumulating in both phenotypic and molecular areas of the cells. At the fatty acid level the differences are approaching but have not reached separate species status. At the molecular level the variation appears to be distributed across the genome and within the gene regions flanking the highly conserved 16S rRNA itself. The data show that these bacteria are not identical and help to rule out questions of contamination by putatively modern strains.


Permian bacteria Halotolerant Salt Halophilic Ribotyping 



This research has been supported by the US National Science Foundation (EAR-0085371 and EAR-9714203) and by DuPont Qualicon Inc. We thank Heather Maughan for providing the RAPD gels.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  • Russell H. Vreeland
    • 1
    Email author
  • William D. Rosenzweig
    • 1
  • Tim Lowenstein
    • 2
  • Cindy Satterfield
    • 2
  • Antonio Ventosa
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of BiologyWest Chester UniversityWest ChesterUSA
  2. 2.Department of Geological SciencesBinghamton UniversityBinghamtonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Microbiology and ParasitologyUniversity of SevillaSevillaSpain

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