Advertisement

Extremophiles

, Volume 8, Issue 4, pp 309–316 | Cite as

Anaerobic, alkaliphilic, saccharolytic bacterium Alkalibacter saccharofermentans gen. nov., sp. nov. from a soda lake in the Transbaikal region of Russia

  • Elena S. GarnovaEmail author
  • Tatjana N. Zhilina
  • Tatjana P. Tourova
  • Nadezhda A. Kostrikina
  • Georgy A. Zavarzin
Original Paper

Abstract

Three strains of new obligately anaerobic alkaliphilic bacteria have been isolated as a saccharolytic component from the cellulolytic community of alkaline Lake Nizhnee Beloe (Transbaikal region, Russia), a lake with low salt concentration. DNA analysis of these strains showed an interspecies level of DNA similarity of 96–100%. Strain Z-79820 was selected for further investigations. Cells were Gram-positive, asporogenous, nonmotile short rods with pointed ends. The strain was a true alkaliphile: growth occurred from pH 7.2 to 10.2 with the optimum at pH 9.0. Strain Z-79820 was halotolerant and could grow in medium with up to 10% (w/v) NaCl, with the optimum between 0 and 4% NaCl. The new isolate obligately depended on Na+ ions in the form of carbonates or chlorides. Total Na+ content needed for optimal growth was 0.46 M Na+, with a wide range from 0.023–0.9 M Na+ at which growth also occurred. The isolate was a mesophile and grew at temperatures from 6 to 50°C (slow growth at 6 and 15°C) with an optimum at 35°C. The organotrophic organism fermented ribose, xylose, glucose, mannose, fructose, sucrose, mannitol, and peptone. The products of glucose fermentation were acetate, ethanol, formate, H2, and CO2. Yeast extract was required for some anabolic needs. The DNA G+C content of the type strain Z-79820 was 42.1 mol%. The new bacterium fell into the 16S rRNA gene cluster XV of the Gram-positive bacteria with low G+C content, where it formed an individual branch. Based on its growth characteristics and genotype traits, we propose the new genus and species named Alkalibacter saccharofermentans with the type strain Z-79820 (=DSM14828), Uniqem-218 (Institute Microbiology, RAS; http://inmi.da.ru).

Keywords

16S rRNA Alkaliphile Anaerobe Saccharolytic bacterium Soda lakes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This work was supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (projects nos. 02-04-48286, 02-04-48112, and 03-04-06859) and the Program MCB RAS. Unknown reviewers and Prof. Grant are thanked for the criticism and improvement of the manuscript.

References

  1. Burris RH (1972) Nitrogen fixation—assay methods and techniques. Methods Enzymol 24B:415–431Google Scholar
  2. Collins MD, Lawson PA, Willems A, Cordoba JJ, Fernandez-Garayzabal J, Garcia P, Cia J, Hippe H, Farrow JAE (1994) The phylogeny of the genus Clostridium: proposal of five new genera and eleven new species combination. Int J Syst Bacteriol 44:812–826PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Garnova ES, Zhilina TN, Tourova TP, Lysenko AM (2003) Anoxynatronum sibiricum gen. nov., sp. nov. alkaliphilic saccharolytic anaerobe from cellulolytic community of Nizhnee Beloe (Transbaikal region). Extremophiles 7:213–220PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Gorlenko VM, Namsaraev BB, Kurylova AV, Zavarzina DG, Zhilina TN (1999) The activity of sulfate-reducing bacteria in bottom sediments of soda lakes of the southeastern Transbaikal region (in Russian). Microbiologiya 68:580–585Google Scholar
  5. Hansson R, Phillips J (1981) Chemical composition of the bacterial cell. In: Gerhardt P, Murray RGE, Costilw RN, Nester EW, Wood WA, Krieg NR, Philips GB (eds) Manual of methods for general bacteriology. American Society for Microbiology, Washington, pp 328–364Google Scholar
  6. Jones BE, Grant WD, Duckworth AW, Owenson GG (1998) Microbial diversity of soda lakes. Extremophiles 2:191–200CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Kevbrin VV, Zavarzin GA (1992) Effect of sulfur compounds on the growth of the halophilic homoacetic bacterium Acetohalobium arabaticum (in Russian). Microbiologiya 61:563–567Google Scholar
  8. Kevbrin VV, Zhilina TN, Rainey FA, Zavarzin GA (1998) Tindallia magadii gen. nov., sp. nov.: an alkaliphilic anaerobic ammonifier from soda lake deposits. Curr Microbiol 37:94–100Google Scholar
  9. Kevbrin VV, Zhilina TN, Zavarzin GA (1999) Decomposition of cellulose by an alkaliphilic anaerobic community (in Russian). Microbiologiya 68:686–695Google Scholar
  10. Mechichi T, Labat M, Woo THS, Thomas P, Garcia J-L, Patel BKC (1998) Eubacterium aggregans sp. nov., a new homoacetogenic bacterium from olive mill wastewater treatment digestor. Anaerobe 4:283–291CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Moore WEC, Holdeman Moore LV (1986) Genus Eubacterium Prévot 1938. In: Sneath PHA, Mair NS, Sharpe ME, Holt JG (eds) Bergey’s manual of systematic bacteriology. Williams and Wilkins, Baltimore, pp 1353–1373Google Scholar
  12. Mountfort DO, Grant WD, Clarke R, Asher RA (1988) Eubacterium callanderi sp. nov. that demethoxylates o-methoxylated aromatic acids to volatile fatty acids. Int J Syst Bacteriol 38:254–258Google Scholar
  13. Namsaraev BB, Zhilina TN, Kurylova AV, Gorlenko VM (1999) Bacterial methanogenesis in soda lakes of the southeastern Transbaikal region (in Russian). Microbiologiya 68:586–591Google Scholar
  14. Pfennig N, Wagener S (1986) An improved method of preparing wet mounts for photomicrographs of microorganisms. J Microbiol Meth 4:303–306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pikuta EV, Zhilina TN, Zavarzin GA, Kostrikina NA, Osipov GA, Rainey FA (1998) Desulfonatronum lacustre gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new alkaliphilic sulfate-reducing bacterium utilizing ethanol (in Russian). Mikrobiologiya 67:123–131Google Scholar
  16. Tourova TP, Garnova ES, Zhilina TN (1999) Phylogenetic diversity of alkaliphilic anaerobic saccharolytic bacteria isolated from soda lakes (in Russian). Microbiologiya 68:615–622Google Scholar
  17. Trüper HG, Schlegel HG (1964) Sulfur metabolism in Thiorhodaceae. Quantitative measurements on growing cells of Chromatium okenii. Antonie von Leeuwenhoek 30:225–238Google Scholar
  18. Willems A, Collins MD (1996) Phylogenetic relationships of the genera Acetobacterium and Eubacterium sensu stricto and reclassification of Eubacterium alactolyticum as Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus gen. nov., comb. nov. Int J Syst Bacteriol 46:1083–1087PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Wolin EA, Wolin MJ, Wolfe RS (1963) Formation of methane by bacterial extracts. J Biol Chem 238:2882–2886Google Scholar
  20. Zavarzin GA, Zhilina TN, Pikuta EV (1996) Secondary anaerobes in haloalkaliphilic communities in lakes of Tuva (in Russian). Microbiologiya 65:480–486Google Scholar
  21. Zhilina TN, Zavarzin GA, Rainey FA, Pikuta EV, Osipov GA, Kostrikina NA (1997) Desulfonatronovibrio hydrogenovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., an alkaliphilic, sulfate-reducing bacterium. Int J Syst Bacteriol 47:144–149Google Scholar
  22. Zhilina TN, Detkova EN, Rainey FA, Osipov GA, Lysenko AM, Kostrikina NA, Zavarzin ZA (1998) Natronoincola histidinovorans gen. nov., sp. nov., a new alkaliphilic acetogenic anaerobe. Curr Microbiol 37:177–185Google Scholar
  23. Zhilina TN, Garnova ES, Tourova TP, Kostrikina NA, Zavarzin GA (2001a) Halonatronum saccharophilum gen. nov., sp. nov.: a new haloalkaliphilic bacterium of the order Haloanaerobiales from Lake Magadi (in Russian). Microbiologiya 70:64–72Google Scholar
  24. Zhilina TN, Garnova ES, Tourova TP, Kostrikina NA, Zavarzin GA (2001b) Amphibacillus fermentum sp. nov. and Amphibacillus tropicus sp. nov., new alkaliphilic, facultatively anaerobic bacilli from lake Magadi (in Russian). Microbiologiya 70:711–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elena S. Garnova
    • 1
    Email author
  • Tatjana N. Zhilina
    • 1
  • Tatjana P. Tourova
    • 1
  • Nadezhda A. Kostrikina
    • 1
  • Georgy A. Zavarzin
    • 1
  1. 1.Laboratory of Relict Microbial Communities, Institute of MicrobiologyRussian Academy of Science (RAS)MoscowRussia

Personalised recommendations