Computing and Visualization in Science

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 99–108 | Cite as

Numerical simulation of skin transport using Parareal

  • Andreas KreienbuehlEmail author
  • Arne Naegel
  • Daniel Ruprecht
  • Robert Speck
  • Gabriel Wittum
  • Rolf Krause


In silico investigation of skin permeation is an important but also computationally demanding problem. To resolve all scales involved in full detail will not only require exascale computing capacities but also suitable parallel algorithms. This article investigates the applicability of the time-parallel Parareal algorithm to a brick and mortar setup, a precursory problem to skin permeation. The C++ library Lib4PrM implementing Parareal is combined with the UG4 simulation framework, which provides the spatial discretization and parallelization. The combination’s performance is studied with respect to convergence and speedup. It is confirmed that anisotropies in the domain and jumps in diffusion coefficients only have a minor impact on Parareal’s convergence. The influence of load imbalances in time due to differences in number of iterations required by the spatial solver as well as spatio-temporal weak scaling is discussed.


Skin transport Parareal Space–time parallelism  Weak scaling Load balancing 


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andreas Kreienbuehl
    • 1
    Email author
  • Arne Naegel
    • 2
  • Daniel Ruprecht
    • 1
  • Robert Speck
    • 3
  • Gabriel Wittum
    • 2
  • Rolf Krause
    • 1
  1. 1.Institute of Computational Science, Faculty of InformaticsUniversità della Svizzera italianaLuganoSwitzerland
  2. 2.Goethe-Center for Scientific ComputingGoethe-University FrankfurtFrankfurt a.MGermany
  3. 3.Jülich Supercomputing Centre, Institute for Advanced SimulationForschungszentrum Jülich GmbHJülichGermany

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