Advertisement

Does maternal somatic anxiety in pregnancy predispose children to hyperactivity?

  • Blanca Bolea-Alamañac
  • Simon J. C. DaviesEmail author
  • Jonathan Evans
  • Carol Joinson
  • Rebecca Pearson
  • Petros Skapinakis
  • Alan Emond
Original Contribution

Abstract

The objective of this study is to explore the association between maternal somatic anxiety in pregnancy and hyperactivity symptoms and ADHD diagnosis in children. Data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children cohort were used to examine the association between somatic anxiety symptoms in pregnancy measured with five items of the Crown-Crisp Experiential Index, ADHD diagnosis in children at 7.5 and 15 years (obtained with the Development and Well-Being Assessment-DAWBA) and hyperactivity at 4 and 16 years (measured with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire hyperactivity subscale-SDQ). Maternal somatic anxiety was associated with ADHD diagnosis at age 7.5 [crude OR = 1.87 (95% CI = 1.21–2.91)], adjusted model [OR = 1.57 (95% CI = 0.99–2.48)]. There was no evidence of association with ADHD at 15: crude OR = 2.27 (95% CI = 0.90–5.71), adjusted OR = 1.65 (95% CI = 0.63–4.35). An association was found at 4 and 16 with the SDQ hyperactivity subscale: crude OR at 4: 1.70 (95% CI =1.37–2.11), adjusted OR = 1.34 (95% CI = 1.07–1.69); crude OR at 16: 1.95 (95% CI = 1.47–2.58), adjusted OR = 1.62 (95% CI = 1.21–2.17).Thus, there was evidence for an association between maternal somatic anxiety in pregnancy and increased hyperactivity symptoms (SDQ) at 4 and 16. There was no association with ADHD diagnosis.

Keywords

ADHD Hyperactivity Anxiety Depression Pregnancy ALSPAC 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are extremely grateful to all the families who took part in this study, the midwives for their help in recruiting them, and the whole ALSPAC team, which includes interviewers, computer and laboratory technicians, clerical workers, research scientists, volunteers, managers, receptionists and nurses. The UK Medical Research Council and the Wellcome Trust (Grant ref: 102215/2/13/2) and the University of Bristol provide core support for ALSPAC. No external funding was required for this study.

Funding

Dr. Carol Joinson is funded by the Medical Research Council (MRC) and the Wellcome Trust.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

Dr. Bolea has received speaker fees once from Janssen pharmaceuticals. The rest of the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Thomas R, Sanders S, Doust J, Beller E, Glasziou P (2015) Prevalence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Pediatrics 135(4):e994–1001.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-3482 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Banaschewski T, Becker K, Scherag S, Franke B, Coghill D (2010) Molecular genetics of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an overview. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(3):237–257.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00787-010-0090-z CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Li Z, Chang SH, Zhang LY, Gao L, Wang J (2014) Molecular genetic studies of ADHD and its candidate genes: a review. Psychiatry Res 219(1):10–24.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2014.05.005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Thapar A, Cooper M, Eyre O, Langley K (2013) What have we learnt about the causes of ADHD? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 54(1):3–16.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2012.02611.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sciberras E, Mulraney M, Silva D, Coghill D (2017) Prenatal Risk Factors and the Etiology of ADHD-Review of Existing Evidence. Current psychiatry reports 19(1):1.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11920-017-0753-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Halmoy A, Klungsoyr K, Skjaerven R, Haavik J (2012) Pre- and perinatal risk factors in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 71(5):474–481.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2011.11.013 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Silva D, Colvin L, Hagemann E, Bower C (2014) Environmental risk factors by gender associated with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 133(1):e14–22.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-1434 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Sundquist J, Sundquist K, Ji J (2014) Autism and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder among individuals with a family history of alcohol use disorders. eLife 3:e02917.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Langley K, Heron J, Smith GD, Thapar A (2012) Maternal and paternal smoking during pregnancy and risk of ADHD symptoms in offspring: testing for intrauterine effects. Am J Epidemiol 176(3):261–268.  https://doi.org/10.1093/aje/kwr510 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Zhu JL, Olsen J, Liew Z, Li J, Niclasen J, Obel C (2014) Parental smoking during pregnancy and ADHD in children: the Danish national birth cohort. Pediatrics 134(2):e382–388.  https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2014-0213 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Kessler RC, Berglund P, Demler O, Jin R, Merikangas KR, Walters EE (2005) Lifetime prevalence and age-of-onset distributions of DSM-IV disorders in the national comorbidity survey replication. Arch Gen Psychiatry 62(6):593–602.  https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.62.6.593 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    NICE (2014) Antenatal and postnatal mental health: clinical management and service guidance. Clinical guideline CG192. National Collaborating Centre for Mental Health, UK; British Psychological Society, Leicester, UK. https://www.nice.org.uk/guidance/cg192
  13. 13.
    Schlotz W, Phillips DI (2009) Fetal origins of mental health: evidence and mechanisms. Brain Behav Immun 23(7):905–916.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2009.02.001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Raskin M, Easterbrooks MA, Lamoreau RS, Kotake C, Goldberg J (2016) Depression trajectories of antenatally depressed and nondepressed young mothers: implications for child socioemotional development. Women's Health.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.whi.2016.02.002 Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Glover V (2011) Annual research review: prenatal stress and the origins of psychopathology: an evolutionary perspective. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52(4):356–367.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02371.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Power ML, Schulkin J (2005) Birth, distress, and disease: placental-brain interactions. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Apter-Levi Y, Pratt M, Vakart A, Feldman M, Zagoory-Sharon O, Feldman R (2016) Maternal depression across the first years of life compromises child psychosocial adjustment; relations to child HPA-axis functioning. Psychoneuroendocrinology 64:47–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2015.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Class QA, Abel KM, Khashan AS, Rickert ME, Dalman C, Larsson H, Hultman CM, Langstrom N, Lichtenstein P, D'Onofrio BM (2014) Offspring psychopathology following preconception, prenatal and postnatal maternal bereavement stress. Psychol Med 44(1):71–84.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291713000780 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Van Batenburg-Eddes T, Brion MJ, Henrichs J, Jaddoe VW, Hofman A, Verhulst FC, Lawlor DA, Davey Smith G, Tiemeier H (2013) Parental depressive and anxiety symptoms during pregnancy and attention problems in children: a cross-cohort consistency study. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 54(5):591–600.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12023 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Leis JA, Heron J, Stuart EA, Mendelson T (2014) Associations between maternal mental health and child emotional and behavioral problems: does prenatal mental health matter? J Abnorm Child Psychol 42(1):161–171.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-013-9766-4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    O'Connor TG, Heron J, Glover V, Alspac Study T (2002) Antenatal anxiety predicts child behavioral/emotional problems independently of postnatal depression. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41(12):1470–1477.  https://doi.org/10.1097/00004583-200212000-00019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    O'Connor TG, Heron J, Golding J, Glover V, Team AS (2003) Maternal antenatal anxiety and behavioural/emotional problems in children: a test of a programming hypothesis. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44(7):1025–1036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    American Psychiatric Association (2013) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders, 5th edn. American Psychiatric Publishing, Arlington, VA, pp 74–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Bolea-Alamañac B, Davies SJ, Evans J, Joinson C, Pearson R, Skapinakis P, Emond A (2018) Do mothers who are anxious during pregnancy have inattentive children? J Affect Disord 236:120–126.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2018.04.118 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boyd A, Golding J, Macleod J, Lawlor DA, Fraser A, Henderson J, Molloy L, Ness A, Ring S, Davey Smith G (2013) Cohort profile: the 'children of the 90s'—the index offspring of the avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Int J Epidemiol 42(1):111–127.  https://doi.org/10.1093/ije/dys064 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    American Psychiatric Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders : DSM-IV-TR. American Psychiatric Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goodman A, Goodman R (2009) Strengths and difficulties questionnaire as a dimensional measure of child mental health. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 48(4):400–403.  https://doi.org/10.1097/CHI.0b013e3181985068 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Goodman A, Lamping DL, Ploubidis GB (2010) When to use broader internalising and externalising subscales instead of the hypothesised five subscales on the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ): data from British parents, teachers and children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 38(8):1179–1191.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10802-010-9434-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    O'Connor TG, Heron J, Golding J, Beveridge M, Glover V (2002) Maternal antenatal anxiety and children's behavioural/emotional problems at 4 years. Report from the avon longitudinal study of parents and children. Br J Psychiatry 180:502–508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    World Health Organization (1993) The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: diagnostic criteria for research. World Health Organization, GenevaGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Goodman R, Ford T, Richards H, Gatward R, Meltzer H (2000) The Development and well-being assessment: description and initial validation of an integrated assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 41(5):645–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Goodman A, Heiervang E, Collishaw S, Goodman R (2011) The 'DAWBA bands' as an ordered-categorical measure of child mental health: description and validation in British and Norwegian samples. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 46(6):521–532.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-010-0219-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Rose D, Pevalin D (2005) The national statistics socio-economic classification: origins, development and use. Palgrave Macmillan, NorwichGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bowen E, Heron J, Waylen A, Wolke D (2005) Domestic violence risk during and after pregnancy: findings from a British longitudinal study. BJOG 112(8):1083–1089.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1471-0528.2005.00653.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dorrington S, Zammit S, Asher L, Evans J, Heron J, Lewis G (2014) Perinatal maternal life events and psychotic experiences in children at twelve years in a birth cohort study(). Schizophr Res 152(1):158–163.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.schres.2013.11.006 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bolea-Alamanac B, Davies S (2016) Is somatic anxiety in pregnancy associated with inattention in children?. J Psychopharmacol 30 (8 (supp)):A104–A105Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    White IR, Royston P, Wood AM (2011) Multiple imputation using chained equations: Issues and guidance for practice. Stat Med 30(4):377–399.  https://doi.org/10.1002/sim.4067 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Somerville S, Byrne SL, Dedman K, Hagan R, Coo S, Oxnam E, Doherty D, Cunningham N, Page AC (2015) Detecting the severity of perinatal anxiety with the perinatal anxiety screening scale (PASS). J Affect Disord 186:18–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2015.07.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Pollack MH, Zaninelli R, Goddard A, McCafferty JP, Bellew KM, Burnham DB, Iyengar MK (2001) Paroxetine in the treatment of generalized anxiety disorder: results of a placebo-controlled, flexible-dosage trial. J Clin Psychiatry 62(5):350–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Lydiard RB, Rickels K, Herman B, Feltner DE (2010) Comparative efficacy of pregabalin and benzodiazepines in treating the psychic and somatic symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder. Int J Neuropsychopharmacol 13(2):229–241.  https://doi.org/10.1017/s1461145709990460 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Ban L, West J, Gibson JE, Fiaschi L, Sokal R, Doyle P, Hubbard R, Smeeth L, Tata LJ (2014) First trimester exposure to anxiolytic and hypnotic drugs and the risks of major congenital anomalies: a United Kingdom population-based cohort study. PLoS One 9(6):e100996.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0100996 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Olds D, Henderson CR Jr, Cole R, Eckenrode J, Kitzman H, Luckey D, Pettitt L, Sidora K, Morris P, Powers J (1998) Long-term effects of nurse home visitation on children's criminal and antisocial behavior: 15-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. JAMA 280(14):1238–1244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Robling M, Bekkers MJ, Bell K, Butler CC, Cannings-John R, Channon S, Martin BC, Gregory JW, Hood K, Kemp A, Kenkre J, Montgomery AA, Moody G, Owen-Jones E, Pickett K, Richardson G, Roberts ZE, Ronaldson S, Sanders J, Stamuli E, Torgerson D (2016) Effectiveness of a nurse-led intensive home-visitation programme for first-time teenage mothers (building blocks): a pragmatic randomised controlled trial. Lancet 387(10014):146–155.  https://doi.org/10.1016/s0140-6736(15)00392-x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Fontein-Kuipers YJ, Nieuwenhuijze MJ, Ausems M, Bude L, de Vries R (2014) Antenatal interventions to reduce maternal distress: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised trials. BJOG 121(4):389–397.  https://doi.org/10.1111/1471-0528.12500 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Walker LO, Murphey CL, Nichols F (2015) The broken thread of health promotion and disease prevention for women during the postpartum period. J Perinatal Edu 24(2):81–92.  https://doi.org/10.1891/1058-1243.24.2.81 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rutter M (2003) Categories, dimensions, and the mental health of children and adolescents. Ann N Y Acad Sci 1008:11–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Sonuga-Barke EJ (2014) 'What's up, (R)DoC?'–can identifying core dimensions of early functioning help us understand, and then reduce, developmental risk for mental disorders? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 55(8):849–851.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpp.12293 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Stochl J, Khandaker GM, Lewis G, Perez J, Goodyer IM, Zammit S, Sullivan S, Croudace TJ, Jones PB (2015) Mood, anxiety and psychotic phenomena measure a common psychopathological factor. Psychol Med 45(7):1483–1493.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S003329171400261X CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leis JA, Heron J, Stuart EA, Mendelson T (2012) Associations between depressive and anxious symptoms and prenatal alcohol use. Matern Child Health J 16(6):1304–1311.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-011-0892-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Yurdusen S, Erol N, Gencoz T (2013) The effects of parental attitudes and mothers' psychological well-being on the emotional and behavioral problems of their preschool children. Matern Child Health J 17(1):68–75.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10995-012-0946-6 CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Blanca Bolea-Alamañac
    • 1
  • Simon J. C. Davies
    • 2
    Email author
  • Jonathan Evans
    • 3
  • Carol Joinson
    • 3
  • Rebecca Pearson
    • 3
  • Petros Skapinakis
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alan Emond
    • 6
  1. 1.General Systems DivisionCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  2. 2.Geriatric Psychiatry DivisionCentre for Addiction and Mental HealthTorontoCanada
  3. 3.Centre for Academic Mental Health, University of BristolBristolUK
  4. 4.Division of PsychiatryUniversity College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Department of PsychiatryUniversity of Ioannina School of MedicineIoanninaGreece
  6. 6.Centre for Child and Adolescent Health, School of Social and Community MedicineUniversity of BristolBristolUK

Personalised recommendations