Advertisement

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 25, Issue 11, pp 1195–1206 | Cite as

Childhood trajectories of inattention-hyperactivity and academic achievement at 12 years

  • Julie Salla
  • Grégory Michel
  • Jean Baptiste Pingault
  • Eric Lacourse
  • Stéphane Paquin
  • Cédric Galéra
  • Bruno Falissard
  • Michel Boivin
  • Richard E. Tremblay
  • Sylvana M. Côté
Original Contribution

Abstract

Few prospective studies spanning early childhood to early adolescence have examined separately the contribution of inattention and hyperactivity to academic achievement. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the developmental trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity symptoms during early and middle childhood are independently associated with academic achievement at age 12 years. The independent associations between inattention and hyperactivity trajectories during early and middle childhood and academic performance at age 12 years were examined in a population-based longitudinal birth cohort (n = 2120). In adjusted analyses, high early childhood inattention trajectories were associated with teacher-rated academic performance in reading, writing and mathematics and with government exam score in writing. High and moderate inattention trajectories during middle childhood predicted lower performance on both teacher-rated academic performance and government exam scores in reading, writing, and mathematics. Hyperactivity was not a consistent predictor of educational outcomes. Childhood inattention symptoms rather than hyperactivity carry risk of poor educational outcomes at age 12 years. Children with high levels of inattention can be identified during the preschool years. Prevention programs supporting the development of attentional capacities and executive functions could help reduce the negative consequences of inattention.

Keywords

Academic achievement Inattention Hyperactivity Early childhood Middle childhood 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The Québec Institute of Statistics and the staff of the Groupe de Recherche sur l’Inadaptation Psychosociale chez l’Enfant (GRIP) provided data collection and management. Part of the Statistical analyses was conducted by Dr. Liu under the guidance of Dr. Côté.

Funding source

This research was supported by the Quebec’s Ministry of Health; the Quebec’s Health Research Fund (FRQ-S); the Québec’s Culture and Society Research Fund (FRQ-SC); Canada’s Social Science and Humanities Research Council (SSHRC); the Canadian Institutes for Health Research (CIHR); St-Justine Hospital’s Research Center, and the University of Montréal. Dr Côté is a senior fellow of the Quebec’s Health Research Fund (FRQ-S).

Contributors’ statement

Julie Salla, Dr. Salla carried out all analyses, drafted the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Grégory Michel, Dr.Michel designed the analyses, reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Jean Baptiste Pingault, Eric Lacourse, Stéphane Paquin, Cédric Galéra, Bruno Falissard, Drs. Pingault, Lacourse, Paquin, Galéra, Falissard reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Michel Boivin, Dr. Boivin designed the data collection instruments, reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Richard E. Tremblay, Dr. Tremblay conceptualized, designed the study, designed the data collection instruments, reviewed the manuscript and approved the final manuscript as submitted. Sylvana M. Côté, Dr. Côté conceptualized and designed the study, critically reviewed the analyses and the manuscript, and approved the final manuscript as submitted.

Compliance with ethical standards

Financial disclosure

The authors have no financial relationships relevant to this article to disclose.

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Integrity of research

The study has been approved by the appropriate ethics committee and therefore been performed in accordance with the ethical standards laid down in the 1964 Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

References

  1. 1.
    Karoly LA, Kilburn MR, Cannon JS (2005) Early childhood interventions: proven results, future promise. Santa Monica, RAND Distribution ServicesGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Mirowsky J, Ross CE (2003) Education, social status, and health. Transaction PublishersGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Frazier TW, Youngstrom EA, Glutting JJ, Watkins MW (2007) ADHD and achievement: meta-analysis of the child, adolescent, and adult literatures and a concomitant study with college students. J Learn Disabil 40:49–65CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Loe IM, Feldman HM (2007) Academic and educational outcomes of children with ADHD. J Pediatr Psychol 32:643–654CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Polderman TJC, Boomsma DI, Bartels M, Verhulst FC, Huizink AC (2010) A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement. Acta Psychiatr Scand 122:271–284CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Lee SS, Hinshaw SP (2006) Predictors of adolescent functioning in girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): the role of childhood ADHD, conduct problems, and peer status. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 35:356–368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Massetti GM, Lahey BB, Pelham WE, Loney J, Ehrhardt A, Lee SS, Kipp H (2008) Academic achievement over 8 years among children who met modified criteria for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder at 4–6 years of age. J Abnorm Child Psychol 36:399–410CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Pingault JB, Tremblay RE, Vitaro F, Carbonneau R, Genolini C, Falissard B, Côté SM (2011) Childhood trajectories of inattention and hyperactivity and prediction of educational attainment in early adulthood: a 16-year longitudinal population-based study. Am J Psychiatry 168(11):1164–1170CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Sayal K, Washbrook E, Propper C (2015) Childhood behavior problems and academic outcomes in adolescence: longitudinal population-based study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 54(5):360–368CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Keenan K, Wakschlag L (2002) Can a valid diagnosis of disruptive behavior disorder be made in preschool children? Am J Psychiatry 159:351–358CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Scheeringa M (2003) Research diagnostic criteria for infants and preschool children: the process and empirical support. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42(12):1504–1512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Egger H, Erkanli E, Keelr G et al (2006) Test-retest reliability of the Preschool Age Psychiatric Assessment (PAPA). J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45(5):538–549CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Washbrook E, Propper C, Sayal K (2013) Pre-school hyperactivity/attention problems and educational outcomes in adolescence: prospective longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry 203(4):265–271CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Duncan GJ, Dowsett CJ, Claessens A, Magnuson K, Huston AC, Klebanov P et al (2007) School readiness and later achievement. Dev Psycho 43:1428–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Warner-Rogers J, Taylor A, Taylor E, Sandberg S (2000) Inattentive behavior in childhood: epidemiology and implications for development. J Learn Disabil 33:520–536CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biederman J (2005) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a selective overview. Biol Psychiatry 2005(57):1215–1220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Breslau J, Miller E, Breslau N, Bohnert K, Lucia V, Schweitzer J (2009) The impact of early behavior disturbances on academic achievement in high school. Pediatrics 123:1472–1476CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biederman J, Petty CR, Monuteaux MC, Fried R, Byrne D, Mirto T, Spencer T, Wilens TE, Faraone SV (2010) Adult psychiatric outcomes of girls with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: 11-year follow-up in a longitudinal case-control study. Am J Psychiatry 167:409–417CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Fontaine N, Carbonneau R, Barker ED, Vitaro F, Hébert M, Côté SM, Nagin DS, Zoccolillo M, Tremblay RE (2008) Girls’ hyperactivity and physical aggression during childhood and adjustment problems in early adulthood: a 15-year longitudinal study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 65:320–328CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bauermeister JJ, Matos M, Reina G, Salas CC, Martínez JV, Cumba E, Barkley RA (2005) Comparison of the DSM-IV combined and inattentive types of ADHD in a school-based sample of Latino/Hispanic children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:166–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    van Lier PAC, van der Ende J, Koot HM, Verhulst FC (2007) Which better predicts conduct problems? the relationship of trajectories of conduct problems with ODD and ADHD symptoms from childhood into adolescence. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:601–608CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Nijs PF, Ferdinand RF, Verhulst FC (2006) No hyperactive-impulsive subtype in teacher-rated attention-deficit/hyperactivity problems. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16:25–32CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Carlson CL, Mann M (2002) Sluggish cognitive tempo predicts a different pattern of impairment in the attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, predominantly inattentive type. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 31:123–129CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Jetté M, Des Groseillers L (2000) L’enquête: description et méthodologie. Étude longitudinale du développement des enfants du Québec (ÉLDEQ 1998-2002) Québec: Institut de la Statistique du Québec 1(1)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Tremblay RE, Desmarais-Gervais L, Gagnon C, Charlebois P (1987) The classes preschool behavior questionnaire: stability of its factor structure between cultures, sexes, ages and socioeconomic. Int J Behav Dev 10(4):467–484CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Statistics Canada (1995) Overview of survey instruments for 1994–1995 data collection, cycle 1. Statistics Canada, OttawaGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Achenbach TM (1991) Child behavior checklist. Department of Psychiatry, University of Vermont, BurlingtonGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Boyle MH, Offord DR, Racine Y, Sanford M, Szatmari P, Fleming JE (1993) Evaluation of the original Ontario child health study scales. Can J Psychiatry 38(6):397–405PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Romano E, Tremblay RE, Farhat A, Côte´ S (2006) Development and prediction of hyperactive symptoms from 2 to 7 years in a population-based sample. Pediatrics 117(6):2101–2110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Galéra C, Melchior M, Chastang JF, Bouvard MP, Fombonne E (2009) Childhood and adolescent hyperactivity-inattention symptoms and academic achievement 8 years later: the GAZEL youth study. Psychol Med 39(11):1895–1906CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Galéra C, Pingault JB, Michel G, Bouvard MP, Melchior M, Falissard B et al (2014) Clinical and social factors associated with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder medication use: population-based longitudinal study. Br J Psychiatry 205(4):291–297CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Côté S, Zoccolillo M, Tremblay RE, Nagin D, Vitaro F (2001) Predicting girls’ conduct disorder in adolescence from childhood trajectories of disruptive behaviors. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(6):678–684CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Desrosiers H, Tétreault K (2012) Les facteurs liés à la réussite aux épreuves obligatoires de français en sixième année du primaire: un tour d’horizon. Institut de la statistique du QuébecGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Desrosiers H. Tétreault K (2012) Les facteurs liés à la réussite aux épreuves obligatoires de mathématiques en sixième année du primaire: un tour d’horizon. Institut de la statistique du QuébecGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Ministère de l’éducation, du loisir et du sport (2010a) Épreuve obligatoire. Mathématique fin du 3e cycle du primaire, Guide d’administration et de correction de la situation-problème et des situations d’application et de communication. Québec, Gouvernement du Québec: 65Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ministère de l’éducation, du loisir et du sport (2010a) Épreuves obligatoires. Français fin du 3e cycle du primaire, En amont et en aval, Guide 1, Déroulement des épreuves. Québec, Gouvernement du Québec, MELS: 35Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dunn LM, Theriault-Whalen CM, Dunn LM (1993) Echelle de Vocabulaire en Images Peabody : adaptation française du peabody picture vocabulary test—Revised. PSYCANGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Case R, Okamoto Y, Griffin S, McKeough A, Bleiker C, Henderson B, et al (1996) The role of central conceptual structures in the development of children’s thought. Monogr Soc Res Child Dev: 295Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Childers JS, Durham TW (1994) Relation of performance on the kaufman brief intelligence test with the peabody picture vocabulary test-revised among preschool children. Percept Mot Skills 79:1195–1199CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Laurin JC, Geoffroy MC, Boivin M, Japel C, Raynault MF, Tremblay RE, et al Child care services reduce socioeconomic inequalities in academic performance up to adolescence. Pediatrics (on revision)Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Willms DJ, Shields M (1996) A measure of socioeconomic status for the national longitudinal study of children. Atlantic Center for Policy Research in Education, University of New Brunswick and Statistics, New BrunswickGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Nagin D (2005) Group-Based modeling of development Cambridge. Harvard University Press, CambridgeCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Nagin D, Tremblay RE (2001) Analyzing developmental trajectories of distinct but related behaviors: a group-based method. Psychol Methods 6(1):18–34CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Latimer WW, August GJ, Newcomb MD, Realmuto GM, Hektner JM, Mathy RM (2003) Child and familial pathways to academic achievement and behavioral adjustment: a prospective six-year study of children with and without ADHD. J Atten Disord 7:101–116CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV (2000) Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: impact of remission definition and symptom type. Am J Psychiatry 157:816–818CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Larsson H, Lichtenstein P, Larsson JO (2006) Genetic contributions to the development of ADHD subtypes from childhood to adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:973–981CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Willcutt EG, Nigg JT, Pennington BF, Solanto MV, Rohde LA, Tannock R, Loo SK, Carlson CL, McBurnett K, Lahey BB (2012) Validity of DSM-IV attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptom dimensions and subtypes. J Abnorm Psycho 121:991–1010CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Gathercole SE, Pickering SJ (2000) Working memory deficits in children with low achievements in the national curriculum at 7 years of age. Brit J Educ Psychol 70(2):177–194CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Gray S, Tannock R (2014) A longitudinal study of potential mediators of the relationship between inattention and academic achievement in a community sample of elementary school children (No. e767v1). PeerJ PrePrintsGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Martinussen R, Tannock R (2006) Working memory impairments in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with and without comorbid language learning disorders. J Clin Exp Neuropsyc 28(7):1073–1094. doi: 10.1080/13803390500205700 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF (2005) Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiat 57(11):1336–1346. doi: 10.1016/j.biopsych.2005.02.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Nolan EE, Gadow KD, Sprafkin J (2001) Teacher reports of DSM-IV ADHD, ODD, and CD symptoms in schoolchildren. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(2):241–249CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Verhulst FC, Dekker MC, Ende JVD (1997) Parent, teacher and self-reports as predictors of signs of disturbance in adolescents: whose information carries the most weight? Acta Psychiatr Scand 96(1):75–81CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Sayal K, Taylor E (2005) Parent ratings of school behaviour in children at risk of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Acta Psychiatr Scand 111(6):460–465CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Tripp G, Schaughency EA, Clarke B (2006) Parent and teacher rating scales in the evaluation of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: contribution to diagnosis and differential diagnosis in clinically referred children. J Dev Behav Pediatr 27:209–218CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Power TJ, Doherty BJ, Panichelli-Mindel SM, Karustis JL, Eiraldi RB, Anastopoulos AD et al (1998) The predictive validity of parent and teacher reports of ADHD symptoms. J Psychopathol Behav Assess 20:57–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Diamond A, Barnett WS, Thomas J, Munro S (2007) Preschool program improves cognitive control. Science 318:1387–1388CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Curtis DF, Chapman S, Dempsey J, Mire S (2013) Classroom changes in adhd symptoms following clinic- based behavior therapy. J Clin Psychol Med S 20:114–122CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Dupaul GJ, Jitendra AK, Volpe RJ, Tresco KE, Lutz JG, Vile Junod RE et al (2006) Consultation-based academic interventions for children with adhd: effects on reading and mathematics achievement. J Abnorm Child Psych 34:635–648. doi: 10.1007/s10802-006-9046-7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gol D, Jarus T (2005) Effect of a Social Skills Training Group on everyday activities of children with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Dev Med Child Neuro 47:539–545. doi: 10.1017/S0012162205001052 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Shalev L, Tsal Y, Mevorach C (2007) Computerized Progressive Attentional Training (CPAT) Program: effective direct intervention for children with ADHD. Child Neuropsychol 13:382–388. doi: 10.1080/09297040600770787 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julie Salla
    • 1
  • Grégory Michel
    • 1
  • Jean Baptiste Pingault
    • 2
    • 3
  • Eric Lacourse
    • 4
    • 5
  • Stéphane Paquin
    • 4
    • 5
  • Cédric Galéra
    • 1
  • Bruno Falissard
    • 6
  • Michel Boivin
    • 4
    • 5
    • 7
  • Richard E. Tremblay
    • 4
    • 5
    • 8
  • Sylvana M. Côté
    • 4
    • 5
  1. 1.Épidémiologie et Biostatistique, Faculté de PsychologieCentre de recherche Inserm U1219, Team HealthyBordeauxFrance
  2. 2.Division of Psychology and Language SciencesUniversity College LondonLondonUnited Kingdom
  3. 3.Inserm U 1178ParisFrance
  4. 4.Université de MontréalMontréalCanada
  5. 5.Tomsk State UniversityTomskRussian Federation
  6. 6.U669, Institut national de la santé et de la recherche médicaleParisFrance
  7. 7.Université LavalQuébecCanada
  8. 8.School of Public HealthUniversity College DublinBelfieldIreland

Personalised recommendations