European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 24, Issue 9, pp 1049–1059 | Cite as

Childhood neurodevelopmental problems and adolescent bully victimization: population-based, prospective twin study in Sweden

  • Peggy TörnEmail author
  • Erik Pettersson
  • Paul Lichtenstein
  • Henrik Anckarsäter
  • Sebastian Lundström
  • Clara Hellner Gumpert
  • Henrik Larsson
  • Linnea Kollberg
  • Niklas Långström
  • Linda Halldner
Original Contribution


Bully victimization is a common problem among children with neurodevelopmental disorders, including attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and autism spectrum disorder. Previous research was mostly cross-sectional and seldom accounted for co-morbid psychopathology, which makes it difficult to draw conclusions about causality and specificity of any association. Using a genetically informative prospective design, we investigated the association between various neurodevelopmental problems (NDPs) in childhood and bully victimization in adolescence, and the relative contributions of genetic and environmental factors to this association. We obtained parent-reports of NDPs at age 9/12 years and self-reported bully victimization at age 15 for 3,921 children participating in the The Child and Adolescent Twin Study in Sweden (CATSS). Structural equation modelling was used to control for NDP co-morbidity and bully victimization at baseline. Cholesky decomposition was used to analyse genetic and environmental contributions to observed associations. Because most of the NDPs were associated to later bully victimization, a common effect of all NDPs was summarized into a general NDP factor. Controlling for this general factor, only problems with social interaction and motor control uniquely predicted subsequent bully victimization in girls. General and unique associations were influenced by both genetic and unique environmental factors. NDPs in general and social interaction and motor problems in particular predicted later bully victimization. The longitudinal design and twin analyses indicated that these associations might be causal. Knowledge of these vulnerabilities may be important when designing risk assessment and prevention strategies.


Bully victimization Neurodevelopmental problems Neuropsychiatry General factor 



The CATSS study was supported by the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research, the Research Council of the Swedish National Alcohol Monopoly, the Söderström–Königska Foundation, funds under the ALF agreement and the Swedish Research Council.

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

787_2014_658_MOESM1_ESM.docx (32 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 32 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peggy Törn
    • 1
    Email author
  • Erik Pettersson
    • 1
  • Paul Lichtenstein
    • 1
  • Henrik Anckarsäter
    • 2
  • Sebastian Lundström
    • 2
  • Clara Hellner Gumpert
    • 3
  • Henrik Larsson
    • 1
  • Linnea Kollberg
    • 1
  • Niklas Långström
    • 1
  • Linda Halldner
    • 1
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics (MEB)Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  2. 2.Centre for Ethics, Law and Mental Health (CELAM)University of GothenburgGothenburgSweden
  3. 3.Department of Clinical NeuroscienceKarolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden
  4. 4.Centre of Neurodevelopmental Disorders (KIND)Karolinska InstitutetStockholmSweden

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