European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 22, Issue 12, pp 757–770 | Cite as

Resting state FMRI research in child psychiatric disorders

  • Marianne OldehinkelEmail author
  • Winke Francx
  • Christian F. Beckmann
  • Jan K. Buitelaar
  • Maarten MennesEmail author


Concurring with the shift from linking functions to specific brain areas towards studying network integration, resting state FMRI (R-FMRI) has become an important tool for delineating the functional network architecture of the brain. Fueled by straightforward data collection, R-FMRI analysis methods as well as studies reporting on R-FMRI have flourished, and already impact research on child- and adolescent psychiatric disorders. Here, we review R-FMRI analysis techniques and outline current methodological debates. Furthermore, we provide an overview of the main R-FMRI findings related to child- and adolescent psychiatric disorders. R-FMRI research has contributed significantly to our understanding of brain function in child and adolescent psychiatry: existing hypotheses based on task-based FMRI were confirmed and new insights into the brain’s functional architecture of disorders were established. However, results were not always consistent. While resting state networks are robust and reproducible, neuroimaging research in psychiatric disorders is especially complicated by tremendous phenotypic heterogeneity. It is imperative that we overcome this heterogeneity when integrating neuroimaging into the diagnostic and treatment process. As R-FMRI allows investigating the richness of the human functional connectome and can be easily collected and aggregated into large-scale datasets, it is clear that R-FMRI can be a powerful tool in our quest to understand psychiatric pathology.


Resting state FMRI Functional connectivity Child- and adolescent psychiatry ADHD ASD MDD Heterogeneity Imaging 



This work was supported by NIH Grant R01MH62873, NWO Large Investment Grant 1750102007010 and Grants from Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center. Furthermore, MO was supported by the EU FP7 Grant TACTICS and MM was supported by Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) Investment Grant (1750102007010) and NWO Brain and Cognition Grant (056-13-015).

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Supplementary material

787_2013_480_MOESM1_ESM.docx (112 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 111 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marianne Oldehinkel
    • 1
    • 2
  • Winke Francx
    • 1
    • 2
  • Christian F. Beckmann
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
  • Jan K. Buitelaar
    • 1
    • 2
    • 5
  • Maarten Mennes
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Cognitive NeuroscienceRadboud University Nijmegen Medical CenterNijmegenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Donders Institute for Brain, Cognition and BehaviorNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.MIRA Institute for Biomedical Technology and Technical MedicineUniversity of TwenteEnschedeThe Netherlands
  4. 4.Centre for Functional MRI of the BrainUniversity of OxfordOxfordUK
  5. 5.Karakter Child and Adolescent Psychiatry University CentreNijmegenThe Netherlands

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