Advertisement

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 22, Issue 8, pp 481–490 | Cite as

Mental health problems and recidivism among detained male adolescents from various ethnic origins

  • Olivier F. Colins
  • Cyril Boonmann
  • Jorien Veenstra
  • Lieke van Domburgh
  • Frank Buffing
  • Theo A. H. Doreleijers
  • Robert R. J. M. Vermeiren
Original Contribution

Abstract

This study examines differences in self-reported mental health problems between detained youths from Dutch, Moroccan, and Surinamese origin and the usefulness of mental health problems to predict violent and property recidivism in these juveniles. A sample of 296 detained boys aged between 12 and 18 years were assessed by means of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Official information regarding criminal history and recidivism was collected 3–6 years later. In general, Dutch youths and Surinamese youths reported more conduct problems than Moroccan youths, while Dutch youths also reported more hyperactivity than Surinamese youths. Mental health problems were not predictive of violent recidivism in any of the ethnic groups, while being related with property recidivism in Dutch and Surinamese youths. The current study showed that Moroccan youths present themselves on the SDQ as a less seriously disturbed group of youths than their Dutch and Surinamese counterparts. Our results also clearly showed that SDQ self-report scores are not predictive of future violent crimes in any of the three ethnic groups. Implications of the findings and limitations of the current study are discussed.

Keywords

Psychopathology Antisocial Delinquent Risk assessment Ethnicity 

Notes

Conflict of interest

None.

References

  1. 1.
    Colins O, Vermeiren R, Vreugdenhil C, van den Brink W, Doreleijers T, Broekaert E (2010) Psychiatric disorders in detained and incarcerated male adolescents: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Psychiatry 55:255–263PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vermeiren R, Jespers I, Moffitt T (2006) Mental health problems in juvenile justice populations. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 15 (2):333–351. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2005.11.008
  3. 3.
    Grisso T, Zimmring W (2004) Double jeopardy. Adolescent offenders with mental disorders. University of Chicago Press, Chicago/LondonGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colins O, Vermeiren R, Vahl P, Markus M, Broekaert E, Doreleijers TAH (2011) Psychiatric disorder in detained male adolescents as risk factor for serious recidivism. Can J Psychiatry 56:44–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Teplin LA, Abram KM, McClelland GM, Dulcan MK, Mericle AA (2002) Psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Arch Gen Psychiatry 59(12):1133–1143. doi: 10.1001/archpsyc.59.12.1133 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Colins O, Vermeiren R, Schuyten G, Broekaert E (2009) Psychiatric disorders in property, violent, and versatile offending detained male adolescents. Am J Orthopsychiatry 79(1):31–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Plattner B, Steiner H, The S, Kraemer H, Bauer S, Kindler J, Friedrich M, Kasper S, Feucht M (2009) Sex-specific predictors of criminal recidivism in a representative sample of incarcerated youth. Compr Psychiatry 50:400–407PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Veen V, Stevens G, Doreleijers T, van der Ende J, Vollebergh W (2010) Ethnic differences in mental health among incarcerated youths: do Moroccan immigrant boys show less psychopathology than native Dutch boys? Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 19(5):431–440. doi: 10.1007/s00787-009-0073-0 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Achenbach TM, Becker A, Doepfner M, Heiervang E, Roessner V, Steinhausen H-C, Rothenberger A (2008) Multicultural assessment of child and adolescent psychopathology with ASEBA and SDQ instruments: research findings, applications, and future directions. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 49(3):251–275. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2007.01867.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vincent GM, Grisso T, Terry A, Banks S (2008) Sex and race differences in mental health symptoms in juvenile justice: the MAYSI-2 national meta-analysis. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 47(3):282–290. doi: 10.1097/chi.0b013e318160d516 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Desai RA, Falzer PR, Chapman J, Borum R (2012) Mental illness, violence risk, and race in juvenile detention: implications for disproportionate minority contact. Am J Orthopsychiatry 82(1):32–40. doi: 10.1111/j.1939-0025.2011.01138.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Grisso T, Barnum R, Fletcher KE, Cauffman E, Peuschold D (2001) Massachusetts youth screening instrument for mental health needs of juvenile justice youths. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40(5):541–548. doi: 10.1097/00004583-200105000-00013 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Karnik NS, Jones PA, Campanaro AE, Haapanen R, Steiner H (2006) Ethnic variation of self-reported psychopathology among incarcerated youth. Community Ment Health J 42(5):477–486. doi: 10.1007/s10597-006-9056-5 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Goodman R (1997) The strengths and difficulties questionnaire: a research note. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 38(5):581–586. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.1997.tb01545.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Cuellar AE, McReynolds LS, Wasserman GA (2006) A cure for crime: can mental health treatment diversion reduce crime among youth? J Policy Anal Manage 25(1):197–214. doi: 10.1002/pam.20162 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Vieira TA, Skilling TA, Peterson-Badali M (2009) Matching court-ordered services with treatment needs predicting treatment success with young offenders. Crim Justice Behav 36(4):385–401. doi: 10.1177/0093854808331249 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wierson M, Forehand R (1995) Predicting recidivism in juvenile delinquents—the role of mental-health diagnoses and the qualification of conclusions by race. Behav Res Ther 33(1):63–67. doi: 10.1016/0005-7967(94)e0001-y PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Harrington R, Kroll L, Rothwell J, McCarthy K, Bradley D, Bailey S (2005) Psychosocial needs of boys in secure care for serious or persistent offending. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:859–866PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Veen V, Stevens G, Vollebergh W, Doreleijers T (2011) Moroccan adolescent suspect offenders in the Netherlands: ethnic differences in offender profiles. Psychol Crime Law 17(6):545–561CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Schwalbe C, Fraser Day S, Cooley V (2006) Classifying juvenile offenders according to risk of recidivism: predictive validity, race/ethnicity, and gender. Crim Justice Behav 33(3):305–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Colins O, Vermeiren R, Schuyten G, Broekaert E, Soyez V (2008) Informant agreement in the assessment of disruptive behavior disorders in detained minors in Belgium: a diagnosis-level and symptom-level examination. J Clin Psychiatry 69(1):141–148PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Cottle CC, Lee RJ, Heilbrun K (2001) The prediction of criminal recidivism in juveniles—A meta-analysis. Crim Justice Behav 28(3):367–394. doi: 10.1177/0093854801028003005 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Abram KM, Teplin LA, McClelland GM, Dulcan MK (2003) Comorbid psychiatric disorders in youth in juvenile detention. Arch Gen Psychiatry 60:1097–1108PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Essau CA, Olaya B, Anastassiou-Hadjicharalambous X, Pauli G, Gilvarry C, Bray D, O’Callaghan J, Ollendick TH (2012) Psychometric properties of the strength and difficulties questionnaire from five European countries. Int J Methods Psychiatr Res 21(3):232–245. doi: 10.1002/mpr.1364 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    van Doorn S, Jansen LMC, Vermeiren R, Hamerlynck S, Doreleijers TAH (2012) Psychopathology of adolescent detained versus psychiatric inpatient females. Psychiatry Res 195(3):129–133. doi: 10.1016/j.psychres.2011.07.010 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    van Widenfelt BM, Goedhart AW, Treffers PDA, Goodman R (2003) Dutch version of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire (SDQ). Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 12(6):281–289. doi: 10.1007/s00787-003-0341-3 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Goodman R (2001) Psychometric properties of the strengths and difficulties questionnaire. J Am Acad Child and Adoles Psychiatry 40:1137–1145Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Wartna BSJ, Blom M, Tollenaar N (2008) De WODC-recidivemonitor Den HaagGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Grisso T (2012) Exploring the potential for culture-based research on psychopathology of delinquent youth. In: Paper presented at the European Forensic Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mezzich J, Kleinman A, Fabegra H, Parron D (1996) Culture and psychiatric diagnosis: A DSM-IV perspective. American Psychiatric Press, Inc., WashintonGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    de Haan A, Boon A, Vermeiren R, de Jong J (2012) Ethnic differences in utilization of youth mental health care. Ethn Health 17:105–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Bhugra D, Still R, Furnham A, Bochner S (2004) Migration and mental health. Acta Psychiatr Scand 109(4):243–258. doi: 10.1046/j.0001-690X.2003.00246.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Pumariega AJ, Glover S, Holzer CE, Nguyen H (1998) Administrative update: utilization of services II. Utilization of mental health services in a tri-ethnic sample of adolescents. Community Ment Health J 34(2):145–156. doi: 10.1023/a:1018788901831 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Stronks K, Ravelli ACJ, Reijneveld SA (2001) Immigrants in the Netherlands: equal access for equal needs? J Epidemiol Community Health 55(10):701–707. doi: 10.1136/jech.55.10.701 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Lindert J, Schouler-Ocak A, Heinz A, Priebe S (2008) Mental health, health care utilisation of migrants in Europe. Eur Psychiatry 23:S14–S20CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Babinski L, Hartsough C, Lambert N (1999) Childhood Conduct Problems, Hyperactivity-impulsivity, and inattention as predictors of adult criminal activity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(3):347–355PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Colins O, Vermeiren R, Vahl P, Markus M, Broekaert E, Doreleijers T (2012) Parent-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and subtypes of conduct disorder as risk factor of recidivism in detained male adolescents. Eur Psychiatry. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.01.001 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Richter J, Sagatun A, Heyerdahl S, Oppedal B, Roysamb E (2011) The Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)—Self-report. An analysis of its structure in a multiethnic urban adolescent sample. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 52(9):1002–1011. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-7610.2011.02372.x PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Colins O, Vermeiren R, Vahl P, Markus M, Broekaert E, Doreleijers T (2012) Parent-reported attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and subtypes of conduct disorder as risk factor of recidivism in detained male adolescents. European Psychiatry 27(5):329–334. doi: 10.1016/j.eurpsy.2011.01.001 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  • Olivier F. Colins
    • 1
  • Cyril Boonmann
    • 2
  • Jorien Veenstra
    • 2
  • Lieke van Domburgh
    • 2
    • 3
  • Frank Buffing
    • 4
  • Theo A. H. Doreleijers
    • 2
    • 5
  • Robert R. J. M. Vermeiren
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryCurium-Leiden University Medical CenterLeidenThe Netherlands
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryVU University Medical CenterAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Research and Development LSG-RentrayZutphenThe Netherlands
  4. 4.De Waag, Centre for Forensic PsychiatryAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  5. 5.Faculty of LawLeiden UniversityLeidenThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations