European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 21, Issue 4, pp 211–219 | Cite as

Evolution of Internet addiction in Greek adolescent students over a two-year period: the impact of parental bonding

  • Konstantinos Siomos
  • Georgios FlorosEmail author
  • Virginia Fisoun
  • Dafouli Evaggelia
  • Nikiforos Farkonas
  • Elena Sergentani
  • Maria Lamprou
  • Dimitrios Geroukalis
Original Contribution


We present results from a cross-sectional study of the entire adolescent student population aged 12–18 of the island of Kos and their parents, on Internet abuse, parental bonding and parental online security practices. We also compared the level of over involvement with personal computers of the adolescents to the respective estimates of their parents. Our results indicate that Internet addiction is increased in this population where no preventive attempts were made to combat the phenomenon from the initial survey, 2 years ago. This increase is parallel to an increase in Internet availability. The best predictor variables for Internet and computer addiction were parental bonding variables and not parental security practices. Parents tend to underestimate the level of computer involvement when compared to their own children estimates. Parental safety measures on Internet browsing have only a small preventive role and cannot protect adolescents from Internet addiction. The three online activities most associated with Internet addiction were watching online pornography, online gambling and online gaming.


Internet addiction Parenting practices Adolescents 


  1. 1.
    Goldberg M (1998) Technological addictions. Clinical psychology Forum 76:14–19Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Griffiths MD (1996) Internet addiction: An issue for clinical psychology. Clinical Psychology Forum 97:32–36Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Griffiths M (2003) Internet Gambling: Issues, Concerns, and Recommendations. CyberPsychology & Behavior 6(6):557–568CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Anderson CA, Bushman BJ (2001) Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychol Sci 12(5):353–359PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Burgess WA, Baker T (2002) Cyberstalking. Stalking and psychosexual obsession: Psychological perspectives for prevention, policing and treatment Chichester: WileyGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Griffiths M (2001) Sex on the Internet: Observations and Implications for Internet Sex Addition. Journal of sex research 38(4):333–342CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Kraut R (1998) Internet Paradox: A Social Technology That Reduces Social Involvement and Psychological Well-Being? Am Psychol 53(9):1017–1031PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Kraut R, Kiesler S, Boneva B, Cummings J, Helgeson V, Crawford A (2002) Internet Paradox Revisited. Journal of Social Issues 58(1):49–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Yen JY, Yen CF, Chen CC, Chen SH, Ko CH (2007) Family factors of internet addiction and substance use experience in Taiwanese adolescents. CyberPsychology & Behavior 10(3):323–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Yen CF, Ko CH, Yen JY, Chang YP, Cheng CP (2009) Multi dimensional discriminative factors for Internet addiction among adolescents regarding gender and age. Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 63(3):357–364PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Park SK, Kim JY, Cho CB (2008) Prevalence of Internet addiction and correlations with family factors among South Korean adolescents. Adolescence (San Diego) 43(172):895–909Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ko CH, Yen JY, Yen CF, Lin HC, Yang MJ (2007) Factors predictive for incidence and remission of internet addiction in young adolescents: a prospective study. CyberPsychology & Behavior 10(4):545–551CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Gentile DA, Choo H, Liau A, Sim T, Li D, Fung D, Khoo A (2011) Pathological video game use among youths: a two-year longitudinal study. Pediatrics:peds. 2010-1353v2011Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Fisoun V, Floros G, Geroukalis D, Ioannidi N, Farkonas N, Sergentani E, Angelopoulos N, Siomos K (2012) Internet addiction in the island of Hippocrates: the associations between internet abuse and adolescent off-line behaviours. Child Adolesc Mental Health 17(1):37–44. doi: 10.1111/j.1475-3588.2011.00605.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fisoun V, Floros G, Siomos K, Geroukalis D, Navridis K (2012) Internet Addiction as an Important Predictor in Early Detection of Adolescent Drug Use Experience-Implications for Research and Practice. Journal of Addiction Medicine. doi: 10.1007/s10899-011-9291-8
  16. 16.
    Young KS (1996) Internet Addiction: The Emergence of a New Clinical Disorder. CyberPsychology and Behavior 1(3):237–244CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Siomos KE, Floros G, Mouzas OD, Angelopoulos NV (2009) Validation of Adolescent Computer Addiction Test at a Greek sample. Psychiatriki 20(3):222–232PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Siomos K, Braimiotis D, Floros G, Dafoulis V, Angelopoulos N (2010) Insomnia symptoms among Greek adolescent students with excessive computer use. Hippokratia 14(3):203PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Parker G (1990) The parental bonding instrument. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 25(6):281–282PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Avagianou PA, Zafiropoulou M (2008) Parental bonding and depression: Personality as a mediating factor. International journal of adolescent medicine and health 20(3):261–270PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Siomos K, Dafouli E, Braimiotis D, Mouzas O, Angelopoulos N (2008) Internet addiction among Greek adolescent students. CyberPsychology & Behavior 11(6):653–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Schweitzer RD, Lawton PA (1989) Drug abusers’ perceptions of their parents. Br J Addict 84(3):309–314PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Torresani S, Favaretto E, Zimmermann C (2000) Parental representations in drug-dependent patients and their parents. Comprehensive Psychiatry 41(2):123–129PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grant JE, Kim SW (2002) Parental bonding in pathological gambling disorder. Psychiatr Q 73(3):239–247PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Gerra G, Leonardi C, Cortese E, Zaimovic A, Dell’Agnello G, Manfredini M, Somaini L, Petracca F, Caretti V, Raggi M (2009) Childhood neglect and parental care perception in cocaine addicts: relation with psychiatric symptoms and biological correlates. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 33(4):601–610PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Konstantinos Siomos
    • 1
  • Georgios Floros
    • 2
    Email author
  • Virginia Fisoun
    • 3
  • Dafouli Evaggelia
    • 4
  • Nikiforos Farkonas
    • 5
  • Elena Sergentani
    • 5
  • Maria Lamprou
    • 5
  • Dimitrios Geroukalis
    • 5
  1. 1.Hellenic Association for the Study of Internet Addiction DisorderLarissaGreece
  2. 2.2nd Department of PsychiatryAristotle University of ThessalonikiThessalonikiGreece
  3. 3.Department of Psychiatry‘Evaggelismos’ General Hospital of AthensAthensGreece
  4. 4.High-school educatorLarissaGreece
  5. 5.‘Hippocrates’ Center for Drug abuse preventionKosGreece

Personalised recommendations