European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 18, Issue 7, pp 447–457 | Cite as

Full syndrome and subthreshold attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a Korean community sample: comorbidity and temperament findings

  • Soo-Churl Cho
  • Boong-Nyun Kim
  • Jae-Won Kim
  • Luis Augusto Rohde
  • Jun-Won Hwang
  • Dong-Seon Chungh
  • Min-Sup Shin
  • In Kyoon Lyoo
  • Bock-Ja Go
  • Sang-Eun Lee
  • Hyo-Won Kim
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Objective

The main objective of this study was to investigate the comorbid disorders and temperamental profiles of full syndrome and subthreshold attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

Method

A sample of 2,493 students was randomly selected from six representative elementary schools in Seoul, Korea. Among 245 children with full syndrome and subthreshold ADHD diagnosed by the diagnostic interview schedule for children-4th version, parents of 185 subjects (mean age 9.0 ± 1.7 years) and of a random sample of 185 age- and gender-matched non-ADHD children have completed the parent’s version of the children behavior checklist (CBCL) and the juvenile temperament and character inventory (JTCI).

Results

The prevalence rates of full syndrome and subthreshold ADHD were, respectively, 5.90% (95% confidence interval = 4.74–7.06) and 9.00% (95% confidence interval = 7.58–10.41). Subthreshold ADHD cases did not differ from full syndrome ADHD in any JTCI profile, showing high novelty seeking/low persistence/low self-directedness than controls. Subthreshold ADHD also showed increased risk for externalizing disorders and higher scores in eight CBCL scales (somatic complaints, anxious/depressed, social problems, attention problems, delinquent behaviors, aggressive behaviors, externalizing problems and total behavioral problems) compared to the controls.

Conclusions

These results support the clinical relevance of subthreshold ADHD in Asian culture. Increased clinical awareness for children with subthreshold ADHD is needed.

Keywords

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder subthreshold comorbidity temperament DISC-IV 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This study was supported by Seoul Child and Adolescent Mental Health Center Grant 07-2005-013-02. Prof Cho receives research funding from Janssen, Eli-Lilly and Otsuka, and supported by Korea Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (091-081-059) and Korea Health Industry Development Institute (A080055). The ADHD outpatient program from Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre receives research support from the following pharmaceutical companies: Bristol-Myers Squibb, Eli-Lilly, Janssen-Cilag, and Novartis. Prof. Rohde is on the speakers’ bureau or is a consultant for the same companies and is on the advisory board for Eli Lilly & Company.

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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag Darmstadt 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Soo-Churl Cho
    • 1
  • Boong-Nyun Kim
    • 1
  • Jae-Won Kim
    • 1
  • Luis Augusto Rohde
    • 2
  • Jun-Won Hwang
    • 3
  • Dong-Seon Chungh
    • 4
  • Min-Sup Shin
    • 1
  • In Kyoon Lyoo
    • 5
  • Bock-Ja Go
    • 6
  • Sang-Eun Lee
    • 6
  • Hyo-Won Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Division of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Department of NeuropsychiatrySeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  2. 2.Serviço de Psiquiatria da Infância e AdolescênciaHospital de Clínicas de Porto AlegrePorto AlegreBrazil
  3. 3.Seoul Municipal Eunpyeong HospitalSeoulKorea
  4. 4.Heasu Psychiatric ClinicSungnamKorea
  5. 5.Department of NeuropsychiatrySeoul National University College of MedicineSeoulKorea
  6. 6.Seoul School Health Promotion CenterSeoulKorea

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