Advertisement

Comorbidity of tic disorders & ADHD

Conceptual and methodological considerations
  • Tobias BanaschewskiEmail author
  • Benjamin M. Neale
  • Aribert Rothenberger
  • Veit Roessner
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Background

The causes and pathophysiological mechanisms of the common comorbidity of tic disorders and Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity disorder (TD + ADHD; about 50% of TD, about 20% of ADHD) still remain unclear. Studies with a 2 × 2 design comparing groups of children with TD, ADHD, TD + ADHD and healthy controls are in need and may disentangle the influences of TD versus ADHD in the case of comorbidity. Unfortunately, conceptual and methodological problems can restrain possible conclusions from these studies.

Method

A review of the literature on artifactual and non-artifactual models of comorbidity in general and specially for TD + ADHD was conducted.

Results

The first section describes various possible models of comorbidity and their corresponding hypotheses concerning expected patterns of findings comparing groups of children with TD, ADHD, TD + ADHD and healthy controls. In the second part research results concerning psychopathological, neuropsychological, neurophysiological, structural and functional imaging, as well as genetic characteristics are summarized. In the third section possible conclusions and their limitations due to conceptual and methodological problems possibly contributing to the ambiguous results are discussed. Finally, future research strategies and the need for full causal models are outlined.

Conclusion

Some components of the etiological pathways of TD + ADHD may well be shared with the ‘pure’ conditions while others may be unique.

Keywords

ADHD tic disorders comorbidity concepts 

References

  1. 1.
    Albrecht B, Brandeis D, Uebel H, Heinrich H, Hasselhorn M, Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T Flanker-Task in boys with AD/HD, their nonaffected siblings and normalcontrols: An ERP study (in preparation)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    American-Psychiatric-Association (2000) Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders DSM-IV-TR (Text Revision). American Psychiatric Association, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Banaschewski T, Brandeis D Annotation: what electrical brain activity tells us about brain function that other techniques cannot tell us—a child psychiatric perspective. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:415–435Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Banaschewski T, Coghill D, Santosh P, Zuddas A, Asherson P, Buitelaar J, Danckaerts M, Dopfner M, Faraone SV, Rothenberger A, Sergeant J, Steinhausen HC, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Taylor E (2006) Long-acting medications for the hyperkinetic disorders: a systematic review and European treatment guideline. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15(3):476–495PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Banaschewski T, Hollis C, Oosterlaan J, Roeyers H, Rubia K, Willcutt E, Taylor E (2005) Towards an understanding of unique and shared pathways in the psychopathophysiology of ADHD. Dev Sci 8:132–140PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Banaschewski T, Roessner V, Dittmann RW, Santosh PJ, Rothenberger A (2004) Non-stimulant medications in the treatment of ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I102–I116PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barkley R (1997) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, self-regulation, and time: toward a more comprehensive theory. J Dev Behav 18:271–279Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Baron-Cohen S, Cross P, Crowson M, Robertson M (1994) Can children with Gilles de la Tourette syndrome edit their intentions? Psychol Med 24:29–40PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barry RJ, Johnstone SJ, Clarke AR (2003) A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: II. Event-related potentials. Clin Neurophysiol 114:184–198PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Baumgardner TL, Singer HS, Denckla MB, Rubin MA, Abrams MT, Colli MJ, Reiss AL (1996) Corpus callosum morphology in children with Tourette syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurology 47:477–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Berkson J (1946) Limitations of the application of fourfold table analysis to hospital data. Biometrics 2:47–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Brandeis D, Banaschewski T, Baving L, Georgiewa P, Blanz B, Warnke A, Steinhausen HC, Rothenberger A, Scheuerpflug P (2002) Multicenter P300 brain mapping of impaired attention to cues in hyperkinetic children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:990–998PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Brookshire BL, Butler IJ, Ewing-Cobbs L, Fletcher JM (1994) Neuropsychological characteristics of children with Tourette syndrome: evidence for a nonverbal learning disability? J Clin Exp Neuropsychol 16:289–302PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Brown L, Dure LS (2005) The treatment of comorbid attention-deficit disorder and Tourette’s syndrome. In: Kurlan R (ed) Handbook of Tourette’s syndrome and related tic and behavioral disorders. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 455–465Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Buchmann J, Wolters A, Haessler F, Bohne S, Nordbeck R, Kunesch E (2003) Disturbed transcallosally mediated motor inhibition in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clin Neurophysiol 114:2036–2042PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Cardona F, Romano A, Bollea L, Chiarotti F (2004) Psychopathological problems in children affected by tic disorders—study on a large Italian population. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13:166–171PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Caron C, Rutter M (1991) Comorbidity in child psychopathology: concepts, issues and research strategies. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 32:1063–1080PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Carter CS, Macdonald AM, Botvinick M, Ross LL, Stenger VA, Noll D, Cohen JD (2000) Parsing executive processes: strategic vs. evaluative functions of the anterior cingulate cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 97:1944–1948PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Berquin PC, Walter JM, Sharp W, Tran T, Vaituzis AC, Blumenthal JD, Nelson J, Bastain TM, Zijdenbos A, Evans AC, Rapoport JL (2001) Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in girls with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:289–295PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Marsh WL, Hamburger SD, Vaituzis AC, Dickstein DP, Sarfatti SE, Vauss YC, Snell JW, Lange N, Kaysen D, Krain AL, Ritchie GF, Rajapakse JC, Rapoport JL (1996) Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:607–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Castellanos FX, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS, Blumenthal JD, James RS, Ebens CL, Walter JM, Zijdenbos A, Evans AC, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL (2002) Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Jama 288:1740–1748PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Castellanos FX, Sonuga-Barke EJ, Scheres A, Di Martino A, Hyde C, Walters JR (2005) Varieties of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder-related intra-individual variability. Biol Psychiatry 57:1416–1423PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Castellanos FX, Tannock R (2002) Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes. Nat Rev Neurosci 3:617–628PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Channon S, Pratt P, Robertson MM (2003) Executive function, memory, and learning in Tourette’s syndrome. Neuropsychology 17:247–254PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Clarke AR, Barry RJ, McCarthy R, Selikowitz M (2001) Electroencephalogram differences in two subtypes of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Psychophysiology 38:212–221PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Coghill D, Nigg J, Rothenberger A, Sonuga-Barke E, Tannock R (2005) Whither causal models in the neuroscience of ADHD? Dev Sci 8:105–114PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Comings DE (2001) Clinical and molecular genetics of ADHD and Tourette syndrome. Two related polygenic disorders. Ann NY Acad Sci 931:50–83PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Comings DE (1987) A controlled study of Tourette syndrome. VII. Summary: a common genetic disorder causing disinhibition of the limbic system. Am J Hum Genet 41:839–866PubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Como PG (2005) Neuropsychological function in Tourettés syndrome. In: Kurlan R (ed) Handbook of Tourettés syndrome and related tic behavioral disorders. Marcel Dekker, New York, pp 237–252Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Corkum P, Tannock R, Moldofsky H, Hogg-Johnson S, Humphries T (2001) Actigraphy and parental ratings of sleep in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Sleep 24:303–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Crawford S, Channon S, Robertson MM (2005) Tourette’s syndrome: performance on tests of behavioural inhibition, working memory and gambling. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 46:1327–1336PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Dehaene S, Posner MI, Tucker DM (1994) Localization of a neutral system for error-detection and compensation. Psychol Sci 5:303–305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Doyle AE, Willcutt EG, Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Chouinard VA, Silva J, Faraone SV (2005) Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder endophenotypes. Biol Psychiatry 57:1324–1335PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Durston S, Tottenham NT, Thomas KM, Davidson MC, Eigsti IM, Yang Y, Ulug AM, Casey BJ (2003) Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biol Psychiatry 53:871–878PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Eaves LJ (2006) Genotype × environment interaction in psychopathology: fact or artifact? Twin Res Hum Genet 9:1–8PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Filipek PA, Semrud-Clikeman M, Steingard RJ, Renshaw PF, Kennedy DN, Biederman J (1997) Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology 48:589–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Casey BJ, Kozuch P, King AC, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL (1994) Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 151:665–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Gilbert DL, Bansal AS, Sethuraman G, Sallee FR, Zhang J, Lipps T, Wassermann EM (2004) Association of cortical disinhibition with tic, ADHD, and OCD severity in Tourette syndrome. Mov Disord 19:416–425PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Gillberg C, Gillberg IC, Rasmussen P, Kadesjo B, Soderstrom H, Rastam M, Johnson M, Rothenberger A, Niklasson L (2004) Co-existing disorders in ADHD—implications for diagnosis and intervention. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I80–I92PubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Himle MB, Woods DW (2005) An experimental evaluation of tic suppression and the tic rebound effect. Behav Res Ther 43:1443–1451PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D (1990) Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Arch Neurol 47:919–926PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D, Lyytinen H (1991) Corpus callosum morphology in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: morphometric analysis of MRI. J Learn Disabil 24:141–146PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Johannes S, Wieringa BM, Nager W, Muller-Vahl KR, Dengler R, Munte TF (2002) Excessive action monitoring in Tourette syndrome. J Neurol 249:961–966PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Kadesjo B, Gillberg C (2001) The comorbidity of ADHD in the general population of Swedish school-age children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:487–492PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Kirov R, Kinkelbur J, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A (2007) Sleep patterns in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, tic disorder, and comorbidity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 48:561–570PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Kirov R, Kinkelbur J, Heipke S, Kostanecka-Endress T, Westhoff M, Cohrs S, Ruther E, Hajak G, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A (2004) Is there a specific polysomnographic sleep pattern in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder? J Sleep Res 13:87–93PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Kuntsi J, Neale BM, Chen W, Faraone SV, Asherson P (2006) The IMAGE project: methodological issues for the molecular genetic analysis of ADHD. Behav Brain Funct 2:27PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Kurlan R, Como PG, Miller B, Palumbo D, Deeley C, Andresen EM, Eapen S, McDermott MP (2002) The behavioral spectrum of tic disorders: a community-based study. Neurology 59:414–420PubMedGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Leckman JF (2002) Tourette’s syndrome. Lancet 360:1577–1586PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Leckman JF, Peterson BS, Pauls DL, Cohen DJ (1997) Tic disorders. Psychiatr Clin North Am 20:839–861PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Leckman JF, Vaccarino FM, Kalanithi PS, Rothenberger A (2006) Annotation: Tourette syndrome: a relentless drumbeat—driven by misguided brain oscillations. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 47:537–550PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Liotti M, Pliszka SR, Perez R, Kothmann D, Woldorff MG (2005) Abnormal brain activity related to performance monitoring and error detection in children with ADHD. Cortex 41:377–388PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Lyoo IK, Noam GG, Lee CK, Lee HK, Kennedy BP, Renshaw PF (1996) The corpus callosum and lateral ventricles in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a brain magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 40:1060–1063PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Mirowsky J, Ross CE (1989) Psychiatric diagnosis as reified measurement. J Health Soc Behav 30:11–25, discussion 26–40PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Moll GH, Heinrich H, Trott G, Wirth S, Rothenberger A (2000) Deficient intracortical inhibition in drug-naive children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is enhanced by methylphenidate. Neurosci Lett 284:121–125PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Moll GH, Heinrich H, Trott GE, Wirth S, Bock N, Rothenberger A (2001) Children with comorbid attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder and tic disorder: evidence for additive inhibitory deficits within the motor system. Ann Neurol 49:393–396PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Morton J (2005) Understanding developmental disorders: a causal modelling approach. BlackwellGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    MTA-Cooperation-Group (1999) A 14-month randomized clinical trial of treatment strategies for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. The MTA Cooperative Group. Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:1073–1086CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Neale MC, Kendler KS (1995) Models of comorbidity for multifactorial disorders. Am J Hum Genet 57:935–953PubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Nigg JT, Goldsmith HH, Sachek J (2004) Temperament and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: the development of a multiple pathway model. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 33:42–53PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Nigg JT, Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Sonuga-Barke EJ (2005) Causal heterogeneity in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: do we need neuropsychologically impaired subtypes? Biol Psychiatry 57:1224–1230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Nottelmann E, Jensen P (1995) Comorbidity of disorders in children and adolescents: developmental perspectives. In: Ollendick T, Prinz R (eds) Advances in clinical child psychology. Plenum Press, New York, 17:109–155Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Oades RD, Dittmann-Balcar A, Schepker R, Eggers C, Zerbin D (1996) Auditory event-related potentials (ERPs) and mismatch negativity (MMN) in healthy children and those with attention-deficit or tourette/tic symptoms. Biol Psychol 43:163–185PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Olson SL, Bates JE, Sandy JM, Schilling EM (2002) Early developmental precursors of impulsive and inattentive behavior: from infancy to middle childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:435–447PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Osmon DC, Smerz JM (2005) Neuropsychological evaluation in the diagnosis and treatment of Tourette’s syndrome. Behav Modif 29:746–783PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Pauls DL, Cohen DJ, Kidd KK, Leckman JF (1988) Tourette syndrome and neuropsychiatric disorders: is there a genetic relationship? Am J Hum Genet 43:206–217PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Pauls DL, Leckman JF (1986) The inheritance of Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome and associated behaviors. Evidence for autosomal dominant transmission. N Engl J Med 315:993–997PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Pauls DL, Leckman JF, Cohen DJ (1993) Familial relationship between Gilles de la Tourette’s syndrome, attention deficit disorder, learning disabilities, speech disorders, and stuttering. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 32:1044–1050PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pennington BF, Ozonoff S (1996) Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:51–87PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Peterson BS, Cohen DJ (1998) The treatment of Tourette’s syndrome: multimodal, developmental intervention. J Clin Psychiatry 59(Suppl 1):62–72, discussion 73–64PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Peterson BS, Pine DS, Cohen P, Brook JS (2001) Prospective, longitudinal study of tic, obsessive-compulsive, and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders in an epidemiological sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:685–695PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Peterson BS, Staib L, Scahill L, Zhang H, Anderson C, Leckman JF, Cohen DJ, Gore JC, Albert J, Webster R (2001) Regional brain and ventricular volumes in Tourette syndrome. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:427–440PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Plessen KJ, Royal JM, Peterson BS (2007) Neuroimaging of tic disorders with coexisting attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 16(Suppl 1)I/60–I/70Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Plessen KJ, Wentzel-Larsen T, Hugdahl K, Feineigle P, Klein J, Staib LH, Leckman JF, Bansal R, Peterson BS (2004) Altered interhemispheric connectivity in individuals with Tourette’s disorder. Am J Psychiatry 161:2028–2037PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Robertson MM (2006) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, tics and Tourette’s syndrome: the relationship and treatment implications. A commentary. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15:1–11PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Roessner V, Banaschewski T, Uebel H, Becker A, Rothenberger A (2004) Neuronal network models of ADHD—lateralization with respect to interhemispheric connectivity reconsidered. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I71–I79PubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Roessner V, Becker A, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A (2007) Executive functions in children with chronic tic disorders with/without ADHD—new insights. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16(Suppl 1):I/36–I/44Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Roessner V, Robatzek M, Knapp G, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A (2006) First-onset tics in patients with attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder: impact of stimulants. Dev Med Child Neurol 48:616–621PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Rothenberger A (1991) Wenn Kinder Tics entwickeln: Beginn einer komplexen kinderpsychiatrischen Störung. G. Fischer, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T (2006) Tic-disorders. In: Gillberg C, Harrington R, Steinhausen HC (eds) A Clinican’s handbook of child and adolescent psychiatry. Cambridge Univ. Press, pp 598–624Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T, Heinrich H, Moll GH, Schmidt MH, van’t Klooster B (2000) Comorbidity in ADHD-children: effects of coexisting conduct disorder or tic disorder on event-related brain potentials in an auditory selective-attention task. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 250:101–110PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Rothenberger A, Roessner V, Banaschewski T (2006) Habit formation in Tourette syndrome with associated obsessive-compulsive behavior: at the crossroads of neurobiological modelling. Behav Brain Sci 29:627–628CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Rubia K, Overmeyer S, Taylor E, Brammer M, Williams SC, Simmons A, Bullmore ET (1999) Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control: a study with functional MRI. Am J Psychiatry 156:891–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Sagvolden T, Johansen EB, Aase H, Russell VA (2005) A dynamic developmental theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) predominantly hyperactive/impulsive and combined subtypes. Behav Brain Sci 28:397–419, discussion 419–368PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Scahill L, Williams S, Schwab-Stone M, Applegate J, Leckman JF (2006) Disruptive behavior problems in a community sample of children with tic disorders. Adv Neurol 99:184–190PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Schultz RT, Carter AS, Gladstone M, Scahill L, Leckman JF, Peterson BS, Zhang H, Cohen DJ, Pauls D (1998) Visual-motor integration functioning in children with Tourette syndrome. Neuropsychology 12:134–145PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Semrud-Clikeman M, Filipek PA, Biederman J, Steingard R, Kennedy D, Renshaw P, Bekken K (1994) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: magnetic resonance imaging morphometric analysis of the corpus callosum. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:875–881PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Sergeant J (2005) Are we ready for endophenotypes in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder? Rev Bras Psiquiatr 27:262–263PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Singer HS, Wong DF, Brown JE, Brandt J, Krafft L, Shaya E, Dannals RF, Wagner HN Jr (1992) Positron emission tomography evaluation of dopamine D-2 receptors in adults with Tourette syndrome. Adv Neurol 58:233–239PubMedGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Solanto MV, Abikoff H, Sonuga-Barke E, Schachar R, Logan GD, Wigal T, Hechtman L, Hinshaw S, Turkel E (2001) The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: a supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 29:215–228PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Sonuga-Barke EJ (2003) The dual pathway model of AD/HD: an elaboration of neuro-developmental characteristics. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 27:593–604PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Spencer TJ, Biederman J, Faraone S, Mick E, Coffey B, Geller D, Kagan J, Bearman SK, Wilens T (2001) Impact of tic disorders on ADHD outcome across the life cycle: findings from a large group of adults with and without ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 158:611–617PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Spessot AL, Peterson BS (2006) Tourette syndrome: a multifactorial, developmental pychopathology. In: Cicchetti D, Cohen DJ (eds) Manual of developmental Psychopathology, 2nd edn, Volume 3. John Wiley, New York, pp 436–469Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Steinhausen HC, Novik TS, Baldursson G, Curatolo P, Lorenzo MJ, Rodrigues Pereira R, Ralston SJ, Rothenberger A (2006) Co-existing psychiatric problems in ADHD in the ADORE cohort. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15(Suppl 1):i25–i29CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Stewart SE, Illmann C, Geller DA, Leckman JF, King R, Pauls DL (2006) A controlled family study of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and Tourette’s disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 45:1354–1362PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Sukodolsky DG, Leckman J, Rothenberger A, Scahill L (2007) The role of abnormal neural oscillations in the pathophysiology of co-occuring Tourette syndrome and ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 16(Suppl 1):I51–I/59Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Taylor E, Dopfner M, Sergeant J, Asherson P, Banaschewski T, Buitelaar J, Coghill D, Danckaerts M, Rothenberger A, Sonuga-Barke E, Steinhausen HC, Zuddas A (2004) European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder—first upgrade. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I7–I30PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Willcutt EG, Doyle AE, Nigg JT, Faraone SV, Pennington BF (2005) Validity of the executive function theory of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analytic review. Biol Psychiatry 57:1336–1346PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Yordanova J, Dumais-Huber C, Rothenberger A (1996) Coexistence of tics and hyperactivity in children: no additive at the psychophysiological level. Int J Psychophysiol 21:121–133PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Yordanova J, Dumais-Huber C, Rothenberger A, Woerner W (1997) Frontocortical activity in children with comorbidity of tic disorder and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 41:585–594PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Yordanova J, Heinrich H, Kolev V, Rothenberger A (2006) Increased event-related theta activity as a psychophysiological marker of comorbidity in children with tics and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders. Neuroimage 32(2):940–955PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Ziemann U, Paulus W, Rothenberger A (1997) Decreased motor inhibition in Tourette’s disorder: evidence from transcranial magnetic stimulation. Am J Psychiatry 154:1277–1284PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag Darmstadt 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias Banaschewski
    • 1
    • 2
    Email author
  • Benjamin M. Neale
    • 3
  • Aribert Rothenberger
    • 1
  • Veit Roessner
    • 1
  1. 1.Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  2. 2.Central Institute of Mental Health, Child and Adolescent PsychiatryMannheimGermany
  3. 3.MRC Social Genetic Developmental and Psychiatry CentreInstitute of PsychiatryLondonUK

Personalised recommendations