Advertisement

European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 17, Issue 5, pp 264–273 | Cite as

Prevalence and correlates of conduct disorder and problem behavior in Caribbean and Filipino immigrant adolescents

  • Cécile Rousseau
  • Ghayda Hassan
  • Toby Measham
  • Myrna Lashley
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

This study investigates the prevalence and subtypes of conduct disorder (CD) and behavioral problems among youth in two communities characterized by prolonged parent–child separation upon immigration. CD and problem behaviors were assessed in 252 Caribbean–Canadian and Filipino–Canadian adolescents (12–19-year-old) using the DISC-C, the YSR and the CBCL cross-informant construct. Adolescents reported less problem behaviors than their host country peers, despite immigrant background or parent–child separation. The high adolescent-onset CD rate supports the hypothesis that psychosocial stressors play a role in the emergence of the disorder. Specifically, high levels of perceived racism and low collective self-esteem predicted problem behaviors in these youngsters.

Keywords

conduct disorder problem behaviors imigration parent–child separation psychosocial stressors 

References

  1. 1.
    Achenbach TM, Rescorla LA (2001) Manual for the ASEBA school-age forms & profiles. Library of Congress: VermontGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aguilar B, Sroufe AL, Egeland B, Carlson E (2000) Distinguishing the early-onset/persistent and adolescence-onset antisocial behavior types: From birth to 16 years. Dev Psychopathol 12:109–132PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Anderson WW, Grant R (1987) Patterns of adjustment of West Indian immigrant children in metropolitan Toronto schools. In University Y. (ed) The new newcomers. Canadian Scholars’ Press, TorontoGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bals M (1999) Les domestiques étrangères au Canada: Esclaves de l’espoir. L’Hartman, MontrealGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Bassarath L (2001) Conduct disorder: a biopsychosocial review. Can J Psychiatry 46(7):609–616PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Beiser M, Hou F, Hyman I, Tousignant M (2002) Poverty, family process, and the mental health of immigrant children in Canada. Am J Public Health 92(2):220–227PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bird HR, Canino G, Davies M, Zhang H, Ramirez R, Lahey BB (2001) Prevalence and correlates at antisocial behaviors among three ethnic groups. J Abnorm Child Psychol 29(6):465–478PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Boyd CP, Gullone E, Needleman GL, Burt T (1997) The family environment scale: reliability and normative data for an adolescent sample. Fam Process 36(4):369–373PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Breton J-J, Bergeron L, Valla J-P, Berthiaume C, Gaudet N, Lambert J, et al. (1999) Quebec child mental health survey: prevalence of DSM-III-R mental health disorders. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 40(3):375–384PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Brown TN, Williams DR, Jackson JS, Neighbors HW, Torres M, Sellers SL, et al. (2000) “Being Black and feeling blue”: the mental health consequences of racial discrimination. Race Soc 2(2):117–131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Castro T (2001) A situation on Filipino–Canadian youth. Montreal Children’s Hospital: MontrealGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Chen C, Greenberg R, Lester J, Dong Q, Guo M-S (1998) A cross-cultural study of family and peer correlates of adolescent misconduct. Dev Psychol 34(4):770–781PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Collishaw S, Maughan B, Goodman R, Pickles A (2004) Time trend in adolescent mental health. J Child Pshychol Psychiatry 45(8):1350–1362CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Espiritu YL, Wolf DL (2001) The paradox of assimilation. Children of Filipino–Canadian immigrants in San Diego. In: Rumbaut RG, Portes A (eds) Ethnicities: children of immigrants in America. Russell Sage Foundation, New York, pp 157–186Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fergusson DM, Lynskey MT, Horwood LJ (1996) Factors associated with continuity and changes in disruptive behavior patterns between childhood and adolescence. J Abnorm Child Psychol 24(5):533–553PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Fuligni AJ (1997). The academic achievement of adolescents from immigrant families: the roles of family background, attitudes, and behavior. Child Dev 68(2):351–363PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Goebert DA, BEll CK, Hishinuma ES, Nahulu LB, Johson RC, Foster J, Carlton BS, McDermott JF Jr, Chang JY, Andrade NN (2004) Influence of family adversity on school-related behavioral problems among multi-ethnic high-school students. School Psychol Int 25(2):193–206CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Guarnaccia PJ, Lopez S (1998) The mental health and adjustment of immigrant and refugee children. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin N Am 7(3):537–553PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Jensen PS, Edelbrock C (1999) Subject and interview characteristics affecting reliability of the diagnostic interview schedule for children. J Abnorm Child Psychol 27(6):413–415PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Jessor R, Turbin MS, Costa FM, Dong Q, Zhang H, Wang C (2003) Adolescent problem behavior in China and the United-States: a cross-national study of psychosocial protective factors. J Res Adolesc 13(3):329–360CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Kessler RC, Mickelson CK, Williams RD (1999) The prevalence, distribution, and mental health correlates of perceived discrimination in the United States. J Health Soc Behav 40(9):107–115Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lahey BB, Loeber R, Quay HC, Applegate B, Shaffer D, Waldman I, et al. (1998) Validity of DSM-IV subtypes of conduct disorders based on age of onset. Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37(4):435–442Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Lashley M (2000) The unrecognized social stressors of migration and reunification in Caribbean families. Transcult Psychiatry 37(2):201–215CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Loeber R, Green SM, Lahey BB, Frick PJ, McBurnett K (2000) Findings on diruptive behavior disorders from the first decade of the developmental trends study. Clin Child Fam Psychol Rev 3(1):37–60PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Luhtanen R, Crocker J (1992) A collective self-esteem scale: self-evaluation of one’s social identity. Pers Soc Psychol Bull 18:302–318CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Lustig SL, Kia-Keating M, Knight Grant W, Geltman P, Ellis H, Kinzie DJ, et al. (2004) Review of child and adolsecent refugee mental health. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 43(1):24–36PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Marmorstein NR, Iacono WG (2005) Longitudinal follow-up of adolescents with late-onset antisocial behavior: a pathological yet overlooked group. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 44(12):1284–1291PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maughan B, Rowe R, Messer J, Goodman R, Meltzer H (2004) Conduct disorder and oppositional defiant disorder in a national sample: developmental epidemiology. J Child Pshychol Psychiatry 45(3):609–621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    McCabe K, Hough R, AWP, Yeh M (2001) Childhood and adolescent onset conduct disorder: a test of the developmental taxonomy. J Abnorm Child Psychol 29(4):305–316Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    McCabe K, Rodgers C, Yeh M, Hough R (2004) Gender differences in childhood onset conduct disorder. Dev Psychopathol 16:179–192PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Messier C, Toupin J (1994) La clientèle multiethnique des centres de réadaptation pour les jeunes en difficulté. Commission de protection des droits de la jeunesse, Québec CityGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Moffit TE (1990) Juvenile delinquency and attention deficit disorder: developmental trajectories from age 3 to 15. Child Dev 61:893–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Moffit TE, Caspi A, Dickson N, Silva P, Stanton W (1996) Childhood-onset versus adolescent-onset antisocial conduct problem in males: natural history from ages 3 to 18 years. Dev Psychopathol 8:399–424Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Moos HR, Moos SB (1986) Family environment scale manual, 2nd edn. Consulting Psychologists Press: Palo AltoGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Morgan C, Cauce AM (1999) Predicting DSM-III-R disorders from the youth self-report: analysis of data from a field study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(10):1237–1245PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Munroe Blum H, Boyle MH, Offord DR (1988) Single-parent families: child psychiatric disorder and school performance. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27(2):214–219CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Noh S, Beiser M, Hou F, Kaspar V (1999) Experiences of racism among Southeast Asian refugees in Canada. In Roth R (ed) Psychologists facing the challenge of a global culture and human rights and mental health. Pabst Science Publishers, Lengerich, pp 503–515Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Noh S, Beiser M, Kaspar V, Hou F, Rummens E (1999) Perceived racial discrimination, depression and coping: a study of Southeast Asian refugees in Canada. J Health Soc Behav 40:193–207PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Normandeau A, Douyon é (1995) Justices et communautés culturelles. Méridien, MontréalGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Nyborg VM, Curry JF (2003) The impact of perceived racism: psychological symptoms among African American boys. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 32(2):258–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Offord DR, Boyle MH, Szatmari P, Reagrant N, Links PS, Cadman DT, et al. (1987) Ontario child health study. II. Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilization. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44:832–836PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ogbu J (1993) Foreword. In: Solomon PR (ed) Black resistance in high school: forging a separatist culture. State University of New York Press, AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Piko BF, Fitzpatrick KM, Wright DR (2005) A risk and protective factors framework for understanding youth’s externalizing problem behavior in two different cultural settings. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 14(2):95–103PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rousseau C, Drapeau A (2003) Are refugee children an at-risk group? A longitudinal study of Cambodian adolescents. J Refug Stud 16(1):67–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Rousseau C, Drapeau A (2004) Premigration exposure to political violence among independent immigrants and its association with emotional distress. J Nerv Ment Dis 192(12):852–856PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Rousseau C, Drapeau A, Platt R (2000) Living conditions and emotional profiles of young Cambodians, Central Americans and Québécois youth. Can J Psychiatry 45(10):905–911PubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Rousseau C, Drapeau A, Rahimi S (2003) The complexity of trauma response: a 4-year follow-up of adolescent Cambodian refugees. Child Abuse Negl 27:1277–1290PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Sawyer MG, Arney FM, Baghurst PA, Clark JJ, Greatz BW, Kosky RJ, et al. (2001) The mental health of young people in Australia: key findings from the child and adolescent component of the national survey of mental health and well-being. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 35:806–814PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Schaffer D, Dulcan M, et al. (1996) The NIMH diagnostic interview schedule for children version 2.3 (DISC-2.3: description, acceptability, prevalence rates, and performance in the MECA study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:865–877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Sewell-Coker B, Hamilton-Collins J, Fein E (1985) Social work practice with West Indian immigrants. Social Casework: J Centemp Soc Work 563–568Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sewell-Coker B, Hamilton-Collins J, Matthews L (1997) In search of the American dream: the impact of immigration on West Indian Families. TrinidadGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Shaffer D, Fisher P, Lucas CP, Dulcan MK, Schwab-Stone ME (2000) NIMH diagnostic interview schedule for children version IV (NIMH DISC-IV): description, differences from previous versions, and reliability of some common diagnoses. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39(1):28–38PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Shaffer TG (2006) An application of DSM-IV’s outline for cultural formulation: understanding conduct disorder in Latino adolescents. Agression Violent Behav 11(6):655–663CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Solomon P (1993) Black resistance in high school: forging a separatist culture. State University of New York Press: AlbanyGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Stevens GWJM, Pels T, Bengi-Arslan L, Verhulst FC, Vollebergh WAM, Crijnen AAM (2003) Parent, teacher and self-reported problem behavior in The Netherlands: comparing Moroccan immigrant with Dutch and with Turkish immigrant children and adolescents. Soc Psychiatry Psychiatr Epidemiol 38:576–585PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Suárez-Orozco C (2000) Identities under siege: immigration stress and social mirroring among the children of immigrants. In: Antonius CG, Robben M, Marcelo M, Suárez-Orozco M (eds) Cultures under siege: collective violence and trauma Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 194–226Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tousignant M, Habimana E, Biron C, Maol C, Sidoli-LeBlanc E, Bendris N (1999) The Quebec adolescent refugee project: psychopathology and family variables in a sample from 35 nations. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38(11):1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Vazsonyi AT (2004) Parent-adolescent relations and problem behaviors: Hungary, the Netherlands, Switzerland, and the United States. Marriage Fam Rev 35(3–4):161–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Weisz JR, Suwanlert S, Chaiyasit W, Weiss B, Walter BR (1987) Over and undercontrolled referral problems among children and adolescents from Thailand and the United States: the Wat and Wai of cultural differences. J Consult Clin Psychol 55(5):719–726PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Zoccollilo M (1993) Gender and the development of conduc disorder. Dev Psychopathol 5:65–78CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Cécile Rousseau
    • 1
  • Ghayda Hassan
    • 2
  • Toby Measham
    • 3
  • Myrna Lashley
    • 4
  1. 1.Division of Social and Cultural PsychiatryMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada
  2. 2.Department of PsychologyUniversity of Quebec at Montreal (UQAM) C.P. 8888MontrealCanada
  3. 3.Youth Mental Health CSSS de la Montagne (CLSC Parc Extension)MontrealCanada
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyJohn Abbot CollegeQuebecCanada

Personalised recommendations