European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 44–53 | Cite as

Relations between movement disorders and psychopathology under predominantly atypical antipsychotic treatment in adolescent patients with schizophrenia

  • Stefan GebhardtEmail author
  • Fabian Härtling
  • Markus Hanke
  • Frank M. Theisen
  • Richard von Georgi
  • Phillip Grant
  • Markus Mittendorf
  • Matthias Martin
  • Christian Fleischhaker
  • Eberhard Schulz
  • Helmut Remschmidt



To examine relations between movement disorders (MD) and psychopathological symptoms in an adolescent population with schizophrenia under treatment with predominantly atypical antipsychotics.


MD symptoms and psychopathology were cross-sectionally assessed in 93 patients (aged 19.6 ± 2.2 years) using Tardive Dyskinesia Rating Scale (TDRS), Abnormal Involuntary Movement Scale (AIMS), Extrapyramidal Symptom Scale (EPS), Barnes Akathisia Scale (BAS), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and the Schedule for Assessment of Negative/Positive Symptoms (SANS/SAPS).


All patients with MD symptoms (n = 37; 39.8 %) showed pronounced global psychpathological signs (SANS/SAPS, BPRS: p = 0.026, p = 0.033, p = 0.001) with predominant anergia symptoms (p = 0.005) and inclinations toward higher anxiety- and depression-related symptoms (p = 0.051) as well as increased thought disturbance (p = 0.066). Both negative symptoms and anergia showed trends for positive correlations with tardive dyskinesia (p = 0.068; p = 0.065) as well as significant correlations with parkinsonism symptoms (p = 0.036; p = 0.023). Akathisia symptoms correlated significantly with hostile and suspicious symptoms (p = 0.013). A superfactor-analysis revealed four factors supporting the aforementioned results.


MD symptoms and psychopathology are in some respects related to each other. Motor symptoms representing on the one hand trait characteristics of schizophrenia might additionally be triggered by antipsychotics and finally co-occur with more residual symptoms within a long-term treatment.


movement disorders psychopathology adolescents antipsychotics schizophrenia 



This study was supported by Novartis GmbH, Nürnberg, Germany. We are especially grateful to Sabine Finkenstein and Regina Stöhr for their additional assistance. We also wish to thank all patients for participating in this study.


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stefan Gebhardt
    • 1
    Email author
  • Fabian Härtling
    • 2
  • Markus Hanke
    • 3
  • Frank M. Theisen
    • 4
  • Richard von Georgi
    • 5
  • Phillip Grant
    • 6
  • Markus Mittendorf
    • 4
  • Matthias Martin
    • 4
  • Christian Fleischhaker
    • 7
  • Eberhard Schulz
    • 7
  • Helmut Remschmidt
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and PsychotherapyPhilipps-University of MarburgMarburgGermany
  2. 2.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryJohann-Wolfgang-Goethe-University of FrankfurtFrankfurt am MainGermany
  3. 3.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of BerneBernSwitzerland
  4. 4.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryPhilipps-University of MarburgMarburgGermany
  5. 5.Department of Medical Psychology and Medical Sociology, Department of MusicscienceJustus-Liebig-University of GiessenGiessenGermany
  6. 6.Institute of Anatomy and Cytology, Department of Medical Psychology and Medical SociologyJustus-Liebig-University of GiessenGiessenGermany
  7. 7.Department of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryAlbert-Ludwigs-University of FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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