Cross-cultural reliability and validity of ADHD assessed by the ADHD Rating Scale in a pan-European study
- 790 Downloads
To provide psychometric information on the Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Rating Scale-IV (ADHD-RS-IV) in a large population of children with ADHD.
Patients aged 6–18 years (n=1,478 in baseline analysis) were rated by 244 physicians on the ADHD-RS-IV based on a semistructured interview with the patient's parent. Physicians additionally rated functional impairment (CGAS) and health status (CGI-S), and parents rated their child's behavioural and emotional problems (SDQ) and quality of life (CHIPCE).
Inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity as dimensions of ADHD were replicated. 3-factor solutions reflecting the ICD-10 definition, with hyperactivity, impulsivity and inattention as separate dimensions were extracted in some national sub-samples and in separate analyses for boys and younger children.Good internal consistencies, strong country effects and small effects of age were found. Based on ADHD-RS-IV, 88.5% of patients met the criteria for any ADHD diagnosis. Correlations between ADHD-RS-IV and measures of functional impairment were low but statistically significant. The correlations with SDQ and CHIPCE scales confirm the convergent and divergent validity of ADHDRS-IV.
Impressive evidence for the cross-cultural factorial validity, internal consistency as well as convergent and divergent validity of ADHD-RS-IV was found. ADHD can be assessed reliably and validly in routine care across Europe. The ICD-10 3-factor model seems to be less robust than the DSM-IV 2-factor model, but may be a good description for special populations (boys, younger children).
Key wordsADHD ADORE assessment children cross-cultural validation
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe
ADHD Rating Scale-IV
Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition
Children's Global Assessment Scale
Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale
Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire
- 1.Becker A, Woerner W, Hasselhorn M, Banaschewski T, Rothenberger A (2004) Validation of the parent and teacher SDQ in a clinical sample. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 2):11–16Google Scholar
- 2.Becker A, Steinhausen HC, Baldursson G, Dalsgaard S, Lorenzo MJ, Ralston SJ, Döpfner M, Rothenberger A and the ADORE study group (2006) Psychopathological screening of children with ADHD: Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire in a pan-European study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15(Suppl 1):56–62Google Scholar
- 4.Cohen J (1988) Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd Edition). Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New JerseyGoogle Scholar
- 7.Döpfner M, Lehmkuhl G (2000) Diagnostics system for psychological disturbances in the child and jugendalter after ICD-10 and DSM-IV (DISYPS-KJ) (2nd Edition). Huber, BernGoogle Scholar
- 8.DuPaul G, Power T, Anastopoulos A, Reid R (1998) ADHD Rating Scale-IV: Checklist, Norms, and Clinical Interpretation. Guilford Press, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- 10.DuPaul G, Power T, McGoey K, Ikeda M, Anastopoulos A (1998) Reliability and validity of parent and teacher ratings of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms. J Psychoeducational Assess 16:55–68Google Scholar
- 11.Gadow KD, Sprafkin J (1997) ADHD Symptom Checklist-4 Manual. Checkmate Plus, Stiny BrookGoogle Scholar
- 17.Görtz-Dorten A, Döpfner M (2007) Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit-/Hyperaktivitätsstörungen von Kindern und Jugendlichen im Elternurteil – eine Analyse an einer Feldstichprobe mit dem Diagnostiksystem DISYPS-KJ 2. Huber, Bern, Switzerland (in press)Google Scholar
- 19.Guy W (1976) Subject's treatment emergent symptom scale. In: Guy W (ed) Assessment Manual for Psychopharmacology. Washington, US Government Printing Office, pp 347–350Google Scholar
- 21.Michelson D, Allen AJ, Busner J, Casat C, Dunn D, Kratochvil C, Newcorn J, Sallee FR, Sangal RB, Saylor K, West S, Kelsey D, Wernicke J, Trapp NJ, Harder D (2002) Once-daily atomoxetine treatment for children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. Am J Psychiatry 159:1896–1901PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Preuss U, Ralston SJ, Baldursson G, Falissard B, Lorenzo MJ, Pereira RR, Valsveld L, Coghill D and the ADORE study group (2006) Study design, baseline characteristics and interventions in a cross-cultural framework: results from the ADORE study. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 15(Suppl 1):4–14Google Scholar
- 32.Riley AW, Robertson JA, Forrest CB, Green BF, Rebok G, Starfield B (2001) Technical Manual for the Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition (CHIP-CE) Parent and Child Report Forms. Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MDGoogle Scholar
- 33.Rothenberger A, Woerner W (2004) Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ)–evaluations and applications. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 2):1–2Google Scholar
- 36.Swanson J (1992) School based assessment and interventions for ADD students.KC Press, Irvine, CAGoogle Scholar
- 37.Wolraich ML, Hannah JN, Baumgaertel A, Feurer ID (1998) Examination of DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder in a county-wide sample. J Devel Behav Pediatr 19:162–168Google Scholar
- 40.World Health Organization (1992) The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: clinical descriptions and diagnostic guidelines WHO, Geneva, SwitzerlandGoogle Scholar