European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Supplement 1, pp i4–i14

Study design, baseline patient characteristics and intervention in a cross-cultural framework: results from the ADORE study

  • Ulrich Preuss
  • Stephen J. Ralston**
  • Gisli Baldursson
  • Bruno Falissard
  • Maria J. Lorenzo
  • Rob Rodrigues Pereira
  • Laurens Vlasveld
  • David Coghill
  • ADORE Study Group*

DOI: 10.1007/s00787-006-1002-0

Cite this article as:
Preuss, U., Ralston**, S.J., Baldursson, G. et al. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry (2006) 15(Suppl 1): i4. doi:10.1007/s00787-006-1002-0



To describe the methodology and to present the baseline findings of the Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe (ADORE) study, the primary objective of which is to describe the relationship between treatment regimen prescribed and quality of life of children with ADHD in actual practice.


In this 2-year prospective observational study, data on diagnosis, prescribed treatment and outcomes of ADHD were collected at seven time points by paediatricians and child psychiatrists on 1,573 children recruited in 10 European countries. The data presented here from the 1,478 patients included in the analyses describe the baseline condition, initial treatment regimen prescribed and quality of life of families with children with ADHD.


Patients had a mean age of 9.0 years (SD 2.5) and 84% were male. Physicians diagnoses were made using DSM-IV (43 %), ICD-10 (32%) and both DSM-IV and ICD-10 (12 %). Mean age of awareness of a problem was 5.1 years, suggesting an average delay of approximately 4 years between awareness and diagnosis of ADHD. Baseline ADHD rating scale scores (physicianrated) indicated moderate to severe ADHD. Parent-rated SDQ scores were in agreement and suggested significant levels of co-existing problems. CGI-S, CGAS and CHIPCE scores also indicated significant impairment. Patients were offered the following treatments after the initial assessment: pharmacotherapy (25 %), psychotherapy (19 %), combination of pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy (25 %), other therapy (10 %) and no treatment (21 %).


The ADORE study shows that ADHD is similarly recognised across 10 European countries and that the children are significantly impaired across a wide range of domains. In this respect, they resemble children described in previous ADHD samples.

Key words

ADHD children Europe quality of life symptoms 



Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder


Attention-deficit/hyperactivity Disorder Observational Research in Europe


ADHD Rating Scale-IV


Conduct Disorder


Child Health and Illness Profile – Child Edition


Children's Global Assessment Scale


Clinical Global Impression-Severity scale


Family Strain Index


Hyperkinetic Disorder


Health-Related Quality of Life


Oppositional Defiant Disorder


Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ulrich Preuss
    • 1
  • Stephen J. Ralston**
  • Gisli Baldursson
    • 2
  • Bruno Falissard
    • 3
  • Maria J. Lorenzo
    • 4
  • Rob Rodrigues Pereira
    • 5
  • Laurens Vlasveld
    • 6
  • David Coghill
    • 7
  • ADORE Study Group*
  1. 1.Head of Dept. of Research and Education, Dept. of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryBern UniversityBernSwitzerland
  2. 2.Landspitali University Hospital, Dept. of Child and Adolescent PsychiatryReykjavikIceland
  3. 3.INSERM U669, Université Paris-SudParisFrance
  4. 4.Eli Lilly and Company, Lilly Research CentreWindlesham, SurreyUK
  5. 5.Medical Centre Rijnmond South, Dept. of PaediatricsRotterdamThe Netherlands
  6. 6.Reinier de Graaf Gasthuis, Afdeling kindergeneeskundeDelftThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Section of Psychiatry Division of Pathology and NeuroscienceUniversity of DundeeDundeeScotland,UK

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