Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder among Nigerian primary school children Prevalence and co-morbid conditions
This study aimed to determine the prevalence of ADHD and co-morbid conditions in a sample of primary school children aged 7–12 years in Nigeria.
A two-staged procedure in which primary school pupils aged 6–12 years (n = 1112) were assessed for DSM-IV criteria of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) by their teachers in the first stage and their parents in the second stage. A flexible criterion was used for estimating the prevalence.
The prevalence of ADHD was 8.7%. The prevalence of the subtypes were: predominantly Inattentive 4.9%, predominantly hyperactive/impulsive 1.2% and combined 2.6%. The male to female ratio was 2:1 for all the subtypes of ADHD except hyperactive/impulsive which was 3.2:1. The co-morbid conditions include oppositional defiant disorder (ODD – 25.8%), conduct disorder (CD – 9.3%) and anxiety/depression (20.6%). While ODD and CD were associated with the hyperactive/impulsive subtype, anxiety/depression was associated with inattentive subtype.
Our findings support the notion that ADHD occurs across cultures. Given the prevalent rate, efforts should be made to map out strategies for early identification and referral of these children for proper evaluation and treatment. This study can serve as a platform for future analytical studies about this challenging research issue in sub-Saharan Africa.
KeywordsAttention deficit hyperactivity disorder cross cultural prevalence co-morbidity Nigeria
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