European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 15, Issue 8, pp 476–495 | Cite as

Long-acting medications for the hyperkinetic disorders

A systematic review and European treatment guideline
  • Tobias Banaschewski
  • David Coghill
  • Paramala Santosh
  • Alessandro Zuddas
  • Philip Asherson
  • Jan Buitelaar
  • Marina Danckaerts
  • Manfred Döpfner
  • Stephen V. Faraone
  • Aribert Rothenberger
  • Joseph Sergeant
  • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
  • Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke
  • Eric Taylor


A systematic review of published and unpublished data on the use of long-acting medications in ADHD and hyperkinetic disorder is reported, giving effect sizes and numbers-to-treat for extended-release stimulant preparations and atomoxetine (ATX). A panel of experts from several European countries used the review to make recommendations about the use of these drugs in practice, and conclusions are reported: (1) Long-acting preparations should be available and used; (2) They should not replace short-acting drugs (which will be the initial treatment for many children for reasons of cost and flexibility of dosing). Individual clinical choice is needed. (3) Both ATX and extended-release preparations of stimulants should be available. The choice will depend upon the circumstances, and detailed recommendations are made.


guidelines review stimulants atomoxetine ADHD 



The authors’ meeting was funded by equal contributions from several companies. The authors’ expenses for travel were paid but they received no fees. Some had potential competing interests, and these are detailed separately (appendix 2).


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Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag Darmstadt 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tobias Banaschewski
    • 1
  • David Coghill
    • 2
  • Paramala Santosh
    • 3
    • 4
  • Alessandro Zuddas
    • 5
  • Philip Asherson
    • 6
  • Jan Buitelaar
    • 7
  • Marina Danckaerts
    • 8
  • Manfred Döpfner
    • 9
  • Stephen V. Faraone
    • 10
  • Aribert Rothenberger
    • 1
  • Joseph Sergeant
    • 11
  • Hans-Christoph Steinhausen
    • 12
  • Edmund J.S. Sonuga-Barke
    • 13
  • Eric Taylor
    • 14
  1. 1.Dept. of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry/PsychotherapyUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  2. 2.Dept. of PsychiatryUniversity of DundeeDundeeUK
  3. 3.Dept. of Psychological MedicineHospital for ChildrenLondonUK
  4. 4.Institute of PsychiatryMaudsley HospitalLondonUK
  5. 5.Child Neuropsychiatry, Dept. NeuroscienceUniversity of CagliariCagliariItaly
  6. 6.MRC Social Genetic & Developmental Research Centre, Institute of PsychiatryKings College LondonLondonUK
  7. 7.Dept. of PsychiatryAcademic Centre for Child & Adolescent PsychiatryNijmegenThe Netherlands
  8. 8.Dept. Child & Adolescent PsychiatryU. Z. GasthuisbergLeuvenBelgium
  9. 9.Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Childhood & AdolescenceUniversity of CologneKölnGermany
  10. 10.Medical Genetics Research Program and Dept. of Psychiatry and Behavioral SciencesSUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuseUSA
  11. 11.Dept. of Clinical Neuropsychology, Faculty of Psychology & EducationVrije UniversitatAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  12. 12.Dept. of Child & Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of ZurichZürichSwitzerland
  13. 13.Dept. of PsychologyUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  14. 14.Dept. of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Institute of PsychiatryKings College LondonLondonUK

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