European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 1–10 | Cite as

The scientific foundation for understanding attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder as a valid psychiatric disorder

REVIEW

Abstract

Continued questioning of the validity of a diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has created uncertainties about its management in the minds of many clinicians and the public. Inaccurate beliefs about the validity of ADHD hinder the clinical care of many ADHD patients and lead to confusion about the need to seek out or accept treatment. Critics describe ADHD as a diagnosis used to label difficult children who are not ill but whose behavior is at the extreme end of normal. They further contend that, far from having a biological basis, ADHD results from poor parenting and ineffective teaching practices. Such attitudes do much to further stigmatize patients and their families and increase the burden of this debilitating condition. This review attempts to address these challenges by presenting evidence to show that ADHD meets the criteria for a valid psychiatric diagnosis. Not only does it cause specific disabling symptoms that frequently persist into adulthood, but many studies show it has a biological basis and a characteristic response to treatment. Such data support the idea that ADHD is a valid diagnostic category.

Key words

attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prevalence stimulant therapy etiology 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Alexander GE, DeLong MR, Strick PL (1986) Parallel organization of functionally segregated circuits linking basal ganglia and cortex. Annu Rev Neurosci 9:357–381CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (2002) Practice parameter for the use of stimulants medications in the treatment of children, adolescents, and adults. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:26S–49SPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2000) Diagnosis and evaluation of the child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 105:1158–1170Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    American Academy of Pediatrics (2001) Clinical practice guideline: treatment of the school-aged child with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 108:1033–1044Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Barkley R, Guvremont D, Anastopoulos A, DuPaul G, Shelton T (1993) Driving-related risks and outcomes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adolescents and young adults: A 3- to 5-year follow-up survey. Pediatrics 92:212–218Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barkley R, Murphy K, Kwasnik D (1996) Motor vehicle driving competencies and risks in teens and young adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 98:1089–1095Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barkley RA (1998) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment. New York, GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Barkley RA, Anastopoulos AD, Guevremont DC, Fletcher KE (1991a) Adolescents with ADHD: Patterns of behavioral adjustment, academic functioning, and treatment utilization. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 30:752–761Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barkley RA, Fischer M, Edlebrock C, Smallish L (1991b) The adolescent outcome of hyperactive children diagnosed by research criteria: III. Mother-child interactions, family conflicts and maternal psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 32:233–255Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barkley RA, Fischer M, Smallish L, Fletcher K (2002) The persistence of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder into young adulthood as a function of reporting source and definition of disorder. J Abnorm Psychol 111:279–289CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Baughman FA Jr (2001) Questioning the treatment for ADHD. Science 291:595Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Berquin PC, Giedd JN, Jacobsen LK, Hamburger SD, Krain AL, Rapoport JL, Castellanos FX (1998) Cerebellum in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a morphometric MRI study. Neurology 50:1087–1093PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Biederman J (2002) Practical considerations in stimulant drug selection for the attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder patient-efficacy, potency and titration. Today’s Therapeutic Trends 20:311–328Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Benjamin J, Krifcher B, Moore C, Sprich-Buckminster S, Ugaglia K, Jellinek MS, Steingard R, Spencer T, Norman D, Kolodny R, Kraus I, Perrin J, Keller MB, Tsuang MT (1992) Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives in psychiatrically and pediatrically referred samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:728–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Knee D, Tsuang MT (1990) Family-genetic and psychosocial risk factors in DSM-III attention deficit disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 29:526–533Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Steingard R, Tsuang MT (1991a) Familial association between attention deficit disorder and anxiety disorders. Am J Psychiatry 148:251–256Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Tsuang MT (1991b) Evidence of familial association between attention deficit disorder and major affective disorders. Arch Gen Psychiatry 48:633–642Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Monuteaux MC (2002) Differential effect of environmental adversity by gender: Rutter’s index of adversity in a sample of boys and girls with and without ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 159:1556–1562Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV (2000) Age-dependent decline of symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Impact of remission definition and symptom type. Am J Psychiatry 157:816–818Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV, Burback M (2001) Patterns of remission and symptom decline in conduct disorder: a four-year prospective study of an ADHD sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:290–298Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Biederman J, Milberger S, Faraone SV, Kiely K, Guite J, Mick E, Ablon S, Warburton R, Reed E (1995a) Family-environment risk factors for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: A test of Rutter’s indicators of adversity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:464–470Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Biederman J, Milberger SV, Faraone S, Kiely K, Guite J, Mick E, Ablon S, Warburton R, Reed E, Davis S (1995b) Impact of adversity on functioning and comorbidity in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1495–1503Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Biederman J, Wilens T, Mick E, Faraone S, Spencer T (1998) Does attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder impact the developmental course of drug and alcohol abuse and dependence? Biol Psychiatry 44:269–273Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    Borland BL, Heckman HK (1976) Hyperactive boys and their brothers:A 25-year follow-up study. Arch Gen Psychiatry 33:669–675Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Boyd JH, Burke JD, Gruenberg E, Holzer CE, Rae DS, George LK, Karno M, Stoltzman R, McEvoy L, Nestadt G (1984) Exclusion criteria of DSM-III: A study of co-occurrence of hierarchy-free syndromes. Arch Gen Psychiatry 41:983–989Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Breggin PR (2001) MTA Study has flaws. Arch Gen Psychiatry 58:1184; author reply 1185–1187Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Cantwell DP (1972) Psychiatric illness in the families of hyperactive children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 27:414–417Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Cantwell DP (1975) Genetics of hyperactivity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 16:261–264Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Carey WB, Diller LH (2001) Concerns about Ritalin. J Pediatr 139:338–340Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Conners C, Wels K, Parker J, Sitarenios G, Diamond J, Powell J (1997) A new self-report scale for assessment of adolescent psychopathology: Factor structure, reliability, validity, and diagnostic sensitivity. J Abnorm Child Psychol 25:487–497Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Conners CK (1998) Rating scales in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: use in assessment and treatment monitoring. J Clin Psychiatry 59:24–30Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Diller L (1998) Running on ritalin: A physician reflects on children, society and performance in a pill. New York, NY, Bantam BooksGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Diller LH (1999) Attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. N Engl J Med 340:1766; author reply 1767Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    DiScala C, Lescohier I, Barthel M, Li G (1998) Injuries to children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Pediatrics 102:1415–1421Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dougherty DD, Bonab AA, Spencer TJ, Rauch SL, Madras BK, Fischman AJ (1999) Dopamine transporter density is elevated in patients with ADHD. Lancet 354:2132–2133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Faraone S, Biederman J (2002) Efficacy of Adderall, for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Meta-Analysis. J Attent Disord 6:69–75Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Faraone S, Biederman J, Chen WJ, Krifcher B, Keenan K, Moore C, Sprich S, Tsuang M (1992) Segregation analysis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Evidence for single gene transmission. Psychiat Genet 2:257–275Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Faraone S, Biederman J, Krifcher Lehman B, Keenan K, Norman D, Seidman L, Kolodny R, Kraus I, Perrin J, Chen W (1993) Evidence for the independent familial transmission of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and learning disabilities: Results from a family genetic study. Am J Psychiatry 150:891–895Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Faraone S, Biederman J, Milberger S (1995a) How reliable are maternal reports of their children’s psychopathology?: One year recall of psychiatric diagnoses of ADHD children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1001–1008Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J (1998) Neurobiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 44:951–958CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J (2004) Neurobiology of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder. In: Charney DS, Nestler EJ (eds) Neurobiology of Mental Illness, Second Edition. New York, NY, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Chen WJ, Milberger S, Warburton RM, Tsuang MT (1995b) Genetic heterogeneity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Gender, psychiatric comorbidity and maternal ADHD. J Abnorm Psychol 104:334–345Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Keenan K, Tsuang MT (1991) Separation of DSM-III attention deficit disorder and conduct disorder: Evidence from a familygenetic study of American child psychiatric patients. Psychol Med 21:109–121Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mennin D, Russell RL (1998) Bipolar and antisocial disorders among relatives of ADHD children: Parsing familial subtypes of illness. Am J Med Genet 81:108–116Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Mennin D, Wozniak J, Spencer T (1997) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder with bipolar disorder: a familial subtype? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:1378–1387; discussion 1387–1390Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Monuteaux MC (2000a) Attention-deficit disorder and conduct disorder in girls: evidence for a familial subtype. Biol Psychiatry 48:21–29Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Monuteaux MC (2001a) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder with bipolar disorder in girls: further evidence for a familial subtype? J Affect Disord 64:19–26Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J, Spencer T, Wilens T, Seidman LJ, Mick E, Doyle A (2000b) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: an overview. Biol Psychiatry 48:9–20Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Faraone SV, Doyle AE (2001) The nature and heritability of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America 10:299–316, viii–ixGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Mick E, Biederman J (2001b) Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine d(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158:1052–1057Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Faraone SV, Perlis RH, Doyle AE, Smoller JW, Goralnick J, Holmgren MA, Sklar P (2004) Molecular genetics of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry (in press)Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Faraone SV, Sergeant J, Gillberg C, Biederman J (2003) The Worldwide Prevalence of ADHD: Is it an American Condition? World Psychiatry 2:104–113Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Faraone SV, Spencer T, Aleardi M, Pagano C, Biederman J (2004) Metaanalysis of the efficacy of methylphenidate for treating adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Psychopharmacol 54:24–29Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Faraone SV, Tsuang D, Tsuang MT (1999) Genetics and Mental Disorders: A Guide for Students, Clinicians, and Researchers. New York, NY, GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Feighner J, Robins E, Guze S, Woodruff RJ, Winokur G, Munoz R (1972) Diagnostic criteria for use in psychiatric research. Arch Gen Psychiatry 26:57–63Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Fischer M, Barkley RA, Smallish L, Fletcher K (2002) Young adult follow-up of hyperactive children: self-reported psychiatric disorders, comorbidity, and the role of childhood conduct problems and teen CD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 30:463–475CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Foley HA, Carlton CO, Howell RJ (1996) The relationship of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder to juvenile delinquency: legal implications. Bull Am Acad Psychiatry Law 24:333–345Google Scholar
  58. 58.
    Forehand R, Wierson M, Frame C, Kempton T, Armistead L (1991) Juvenile delinquency entry and persistence: Do attention problems contribute to conduct problems? J Behav Ther Exp Psychiatry 22:261–264Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Fossati A, Di Ceglie A, Acquarini E, Donati D, Donini M, Novella L, Maffei C (2001) The retrospective assessment of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in adults: reliability and validity of the Italian version of the Wender Utah Rating Scale. Compr Psychiatry 42:326–336Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Frick PJ, Lahey BB, Applegate B, Kerdyck L, Ollendick T, Hynd GW, Garfinkel B, Greenhill L, Biederman J, Barkley RA, et al. (1994) DSM-IV field trials for the disruptive behavior disorders: symptom utility estimates. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:529–539Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Frick PJ, Lahey BB, Christ MG, Green S (1991) History of childhood behavior problems in biological relatives of boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. J Clin Child Psychol 20:445–451Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gadow KD, Sprafkin J, Carlson GA, Schneider J, Nolan EE, Mattison RE, Rundberg-Rivera V (2002) A DSM-IV-referenced, adolescent self-report rating scale. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:671–679Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Gjone H, Stevenson J, Sundet J (1996) Genetic influence on parent-reported attention-related problems in a Norwegian general population twin sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:588–598Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Greene RW, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Monuteaux MC, Mick E, DuPre EP, Fine CS,Goring JC (2001) Social impairment in girls with ADHD: patterns, gender comparisons, and correlates. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:704–710Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Hawi Z (2001) The UK/Ireland study of 5HT1B polymorphisms. Third Annual ADHD Molecular Genetics Network Meeting, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Heiligenstein E, Guenther G, Levy A, Savino F, Fulwiler J (1999) Psychological and academic functioning in college students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Am Coll Health 47:181–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hepperlen TM, Clay DL, Henly GA, Barke CR (2002) Measuring teacher attitudes and expectations toward students with ADHD: development of the test of knowledge about ADHD (KADD). J Atten Disord 5:133–142Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Kessler RC (1995) Epidemiology of psychiatric comorbidity. In: Tsuang MT, Tohen M, Zahner GEP (eds) Textbook in Psychiatric Epidemiology. New York, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., pp 179–197Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Krause K, Dresel SH, Krause J, Kung HF, Tatsch K (2000) Increased striatal dopamine transporter in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate as measured by single photon emission computed tomography. Neurosci Lett 285:107–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Kwasman A, Tinsley BJ, Lepper HS (1995) Pediatricians’ knowledge and attitudes concerning diagnosis and treatment of attention deficit and hyperactivity disorders.A national survey approach. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med 149:1211–1216Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Lahey B, Applegate B, McBurnett K, Biederman J, Greenhill L, Hynd G, Barkley R, Newcorn J, Jensen P, Richters J, Garfinkel B, Kerdyk L, Frick P, Ollendick T, Perez D, Hart E, Waldman I, Shaffer D (1994) DSM-IV field trials for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 151:1673–1685PubMedGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Levy F, Hay D, McStephen M, Wood C, Waldman I (1997) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: A category or a continuum? Genetic analysis of a large-scale twin study. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:737–744CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Lowe N, Kirley A, Hawi Z, Sham P, Wickham H, Kratochvil CJ, Smith SD, Lee SY, Levy F, Kent L, Middle F, Rohde RA, Roman T, Tahir E, Yazgan Y, Asherson P, Mill J, Thapar A, Payton A, Todd RA, Stephens T, Ebstein RB, Manor I, Barr CL, Wigg KJ, Sinke RJ, Buitelaar JK, Smalley SL, Nelson SF, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Gill M (2004) Joint analysis of DRD5 marker concludes association with ADHD confined to the predominantly inattentive and combined subtypes. Am J Hum Genet 74:348–356CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Mannuzza S, Klein R, Bessler A, Malloy P, LaPadula M (1998) Adult psychiatric status of hyperactive boys grown up. Am J Psychiatry 155:493–498PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Mannuzza S, Klein RG, Bessler A, Malloy P, LaPadula M (1993) Adult outcome of hyperactive boys: Educational achievement, occupational rank and psychiatric status. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:565–576Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Mariani M, Barkley R (1997) Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Developmental neuropsychology 13:111–129Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    McCubbin M, Cohen D (1997) Empirical, ethical, and political perspectives on the use of methylphenidate. Ethical Hum Sci Serv 1:81–101Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    Michelson D, Adler L, Spencer T, Reimherr FW, West SA, Allen AJ, Kelsey D, Wernicke J, Dietrich A, Milton D (2003) Atomoxetine in adults with ADHD: two randomized, placebo-controlled studies. Biol Psychiatry 53:112–120CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Michelson D, Faries D, Wernicke J, Kelsey D, Kendrick K, Sallee FR, Spencer T (2001) Atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, doseresponse study. Pediatrics 108:E83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Murphy J, Tsuang MT (1995) Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and comorbid disorders: Issues of overlapping symptoms. Am J Psychiatry 152:1793–1799PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Mill J, Asherson P, Browes C, D’Souza U, Craig I (2002) Expression of the dopamine transporter gene is regulated by the 3’ UTR VNTR: Evidence from brain and lymphocytes using quantitative RT-PCR. Am J Med Genet 114:975–979Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Modestin J, Matutat B, Wurmle O (2001) Antecedents of opioid dependence and personality disorder: attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and conduct disorder. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 251:42–47Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Morrison JR (1980a) Adult psychiatric disorders in parents of hyperactive children. Am J Psychiatry 137:825–827Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Morrison JR (1980b) Childhood hyperactivity in an adult psychiatric population: social factors. J Clin Psychiatry 41:40–43Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Morrison JR, Stewart MA (1971) A family study of the hyperactive child syndrome. Biol Psychiatry 3:189–195Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Morrison JR, Stewart MA (1973) The psychiatric status of the legal families of adopted hyperactive children. Arch Gen Psychiatry 28:888–891Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Moss S, Prosser H, Costello H, Simpson N, Patel P, Rowe S, Turner S, Hatton C (1998) Reliability and validity of the PAS-ADD Checklist for detecting psychiatric disorders in adults with intellectual disability. J Intellect Disabil Res 42:173–183Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Murphy K, Barkley RA (1996) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults: comorbidities and adaptive impairments. Compr Psychiatry 37:393–401Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Nada-Raja S, Langley J, McGee R, Williams S, Begg D, Reeder A (1997) Inattentive and hyperactive behaviors and driving offenses in adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:515–522Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Pauls DL, Shaywitz SE, Kramer PL, Shaywitz BA, Cohen DJ (1983) Demonstration of vertical transmission of attention deficit disorder. Ann Neurol 14:363Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Rasmussen P, Gillberg C (2000) Natural outcome of ADHD with developmental coordination disorder at age 22 years: a controlled, longitudinal, communitybased study. J Am Acad Child and Adolesc Psychiatry 39:1424–1431Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Robins E, Guze SB (1970) Establishment of diagnostic validity in psychiatric illness: its application to schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry 126:983–987PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Rucklidge JJ, Tannock R (2001) Psychiatric, psychosocial, and cognitive functioning of female adolescents with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:530–540Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Satterfield J, Swanson J, Schell A, Lee F (1994) Prediction of antisocial behavior in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder boys from aggression/defiance scores. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:185–190Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Satterfield JH, Satterfield BT, Schell A (1987) Therapeutic interventions to prevent delinquency in hyperactive boys. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26:56–64Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Schachar R, Wachsmuth R (1990) Hyperactivity and parental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 31:381–392Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Schachter HM, Pham B, King J, Langford S, Moher D (2001) How efficacious and safe is short-acting methylphenidate for the treatment of attention-deficit disorder in children and adolescents? A meta-analysis. Cmaj 165:1475–1488PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Schmahmann JD (1996) From movement to thought: anatomic substrates of the cerebellar contribution to cognitive processing. Human Brain Mapping 4:174–198Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Seidman LJ, Biederman J, Weber W, Hatch M, Faraone SV (1998) Neuropsychological function in adults with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 44:260–268CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Speltz ML, DeKlyen M, Calderon R, Greenberg MT, Fisher PA (1999) Neuropsychological characteristics and test behaviors of boys with early onset conduct problems. J Abnorm Psychol 108:315–325Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Spencer T (2004) ADHD treatment across the life cycle. J Clin Psychiatry 65:22–26Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Spencer T, Biederman J (2002) Nonstimulant treatment for attentiondeficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Attent Disord 6:109–119Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    Sprich S, Biederman J, Crawford MH, Mundy E, Faraone SV (2000) Adoptive and biological families of children and adolescents with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 39:1432–1437Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Szatmari P (1982) The epidemiology of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorders. Child Adolesc Psychiatr Clin North Am 1:361–371Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Szatmari P, Boyle M, Offord D (1993) Familial aggregation of emotional and behavioral problems of childhood in the general population. Am J Psychiatry 150:1398–1403Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    Szatmari P, Boyle M, Offord DR (1989) ADHD and conduct disorder: Degree of diagnostic overlap and differences among correlates. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28:865–872Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Thompson L, Riggs P, Mikulich S, Crowley T (1996) Contribution of ADHD symptoms to substance problems and delinquency in conduct-disordered adolescents. J Abnorm Child Psychol 24:325–346Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Todd RD, Rasmussen ER, Neuman RJ, Reich W, Hudziak JJ, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Heath A (2001) Familiality and heritability of subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a population sample of adolescent female twins. Am J Psychiatry 158:1891–1898CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    van Dyck CH, Quinlan DM, Cretella LM, Staley JK, Malison RT, Baldwin RM, Seibyl JP, Innis RB (2002) Unaltered dopamine transporter availability in adult attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 159:309–312CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Waldman I (2001) Meta-Analysis of the DAT-ADHD Association. Third Annual ADHD Molecular Genetics Network Meeting, Boston, MAGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Weiss G, Hechtman L, Milroy T, Perlman T (1985) Psychiatric status of hyperactives as adults: a controlled prospective 15-year follow-up of 63 hyperactive children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 24:211–220Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Welner Z, Welner A, Stewart M, Palkes H, Wish E (1977) A controlled study of siblings of hyperactive children. J Nerv Ment Dis 165:110–117Google Scholar
  113. 113.
    Whitmore EA, Mikulich SK, Thompson LL, Riggs PD, Aarons GA, Crowley TJ (1997) Influences on adolescent substance dependence: conduct disorder, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and gender. Drug Alcohol Depend 47:87–97Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Yan W (1996) An investigation of adult outcome of hyperactive children in Shanghai. Chin Med J 109:877–880Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2005

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychiatrySUNY Upstate Medical UniversitySyracuse, NYUSA

Personalised recommendations