European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry

, Volume 13, Supplement 1, pp i71–i79 | Cite as

Neuronal network models of ADHD – lateralization with respect to interhemispheric connectivity reconsidered

  • Veit Roessner
  • T. Banaschewski
  • H. Uebel
  • A. Becker
  • A. Rothenberger
ORIGINAL CONTRIBUTION

Abstract

Background

Recent research on structural and functional anatomy related to ADHD has concentrated on fronto-striatocerebellar circuits. These findings and resultant neurobiological models of ADHD may explain some of the disturbances. On the other hand, there is some evidence that the restricted look at anteriorposterior anomalies might neglect the important additional information of lateralization problems related to hemispheric connectivity.

Objective

Hence, the role of lateralization in the pathophysiology of ADHD should be reconsidered.

Method

After a short review of imaging studies in ADHD the special role of the corpus callosum (including the influence of its anomalies on general brain development, lateralization and functioning) is outlined and the first case of total agenesis of corpus callosum in a child with ADHD is presented and discussed within this context.

Conclusions

In view of the remaining inconsistencies concerning structural and functional brain anomalies in ADHD, attention should be paid not only to anterior- posterior but also to leftright aspects of functional and structural brain anomalies. This should include disturbances probably related to anomalies of the corpus callosum, especially in regard to co-existing problems like dyslexia and developmental coordination disorder.

Keywords

ADHD children lateralization corpus callosum neuronal networks 

References

  1. 1.
    Aboitiz F, Lopez J, Montiel J (2003) Long distance communication in the human brain: timing constraints for interhemispheric synchrony and the origin of brain lateralization. Biol Res 36:89–99PubMedGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aboitiz F, Montiel J (2003) One hundred million years of interhemispheric communication: the history of the corpus callosum. Braz J Med Biol Res 36:409–420 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aicardi J, Chevrie JJ, Baraton J (1987) Agenesis of the corpus callosum. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW, Klawans HL, Myrianthopolous NC (eds) Handbook of Clincial Neurology. Elsevier Science Publishing Co Inc, New York, pp 149–173Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Aylward EH, Reiss AL, Reader MJ, Singer HS, Brown JE, Denckla MB (1996) Basal ganglia volumes in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Child Neurol 11:112–115PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Baumgardner TL, Singer HS, Denckla MB, Rubin MA, Abrams MT, Colli MJ, Reiss AL (1996) Corpus callosum morphology in children with Tourette syndrome and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Neurology 47:477–482PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Baving L, Laucht M, Schmidt MH (1999) Atypical frontal brain activation in ADHD: preschool and elementary school boys and girls. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:1363–1371PubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Bellis TJ, Wilber LA (2001) Effects of aging and gender on interhemispheric function. J Speech, Language, and Hearing Res 44:246–263Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bradshaw JL, Sheppard DM (2000) The neurodevelopmental frontostriatal disorders: evolutionary adaptiveness and anomalous lateralization. Brain and Language 73:297–320 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Brandeis D, Banaschewski T, Baving L, Georgiewa P, Blanz B, Warnke A, Steinhausen HC, Rothenberger A, Scheuerpflug P (2002) Multicenter P300 brain mapping of impaired attention to cues in hyperkinetic children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:990–998 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Buchmann J, Wolters A, Haessler F, Bohne S, Nordbeck R, Kunesch E (2003) Disturbed transcallosally mediated motor inhibition in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Clin Neurophysiol 114:2036–2042CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bush G, Frazier JA, Rauch SL, Seidman LJ, Whalen PJ, Jenike MA, Rosen BR, Biederman J (1999) Anterior cingulate cortex dysfunction in attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder revealed by fMRI and the Counting Stroop. Biol Psychiatry 45:1542–1552PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Bussing R, Grudnik J, Mason D, Wasiak M, Leonard C (2002) ADHD and conduct disorder: an MRI study in a community sample. World J Biol Psychiatry 3:216–220 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Calkins SD, Fox NA, Marshall TR (1996) Behavioral and physiological antecedents of inhibited and uninhibited behavior. Child Devel 67:523–540Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Casey BJ, Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Marsh WL, Hamburger SD, Schubert AB, Vauss YC, Vaituzis AC, Dickstein DP, Sarfatti SE, Rapoport JL (1997) Implication of right frontostriatal circuitry in response inhibition and attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:374–383PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Eckburg P, Marsh WL, Vaituzis AC, Kaysen D, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL (1994) Quantitative morphology of the caudate nucleus in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 151:1791–1796PubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Castellanos FX, Giedd JN, Marsh WL, Hamburger SD, Vaituzis AC, Dickstein DP, Sarfatti SE, Vauss YC, Snell JW, Lange N, Kaysen D, Krain AL, Ritchie GF, Rajapakse JC, Rapoport JL (1996) Quantitative brain magnetic resonance imaging in attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 53:607–616Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Chacko A, Koul R, Sankhla DK (2001) Corpus callosum agenesis. Saudi Med J 22:22–25PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    David AS, Wacharasindhu A, Lishman WA (1993) Severe psychiatric disturbance and abnormalities of the corpus callosum: review and case series. J Neurol Neurosurgical Psychiatry 56:85–93Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Davidson HD, Abraham R, Steiner RE (1985) Agenesis of the corpus callosum: magnetic resonance imaging. Radiology 155:371–373PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Davidson RJ (1994) Asymmetric brain function, affective style and psychopathology: The role of early experience and plasticity.Devel Psychopathol 6:741–758 Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Devinsky O, Laff R (2003) Callosal lesions and behavior: history and modern concepts. Epilepsy Behav 4:607–617CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Durston S, Tottenham NT, Thomas KM, Davidson MC, Eigsti IM, Yang Y, Ulug AM, Casey BJ (2003) Differential patterns of striatal activation in young children with and without ADHD. Biol Psychiatry 53:871–878PubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Egaas B, Courchesne E, Saitoh O (1995) Reduced size of corpus callosum in autism. Arch Neurol 52:794–801PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ettlinger G (1975) Agenesis of the corpus callosum. In: Vinken PJ, Bruyn GW (eds) Handbook of Clinical Neurology. Elsevier/North Holland Biomedical Press, New York, pp 285–297Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Filipek PA, Semrud-Clikeman M, Steingard RJ, Renshaw PF, Kennedy DN, Biederman J (1997) Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology 48:589–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Fredericksen KA, Cutting LE, Kates WR, Mostofsky SH, Singer HS, Cooper KL, Lanham DC, Denckla MB, Kaufmann WE (2002) Disproportionate increases of white matter in right frontal lobe in Tourette syndrome. Neurology 58:85–89PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Gazzaniga MS (2000) Cerebral specialization and interhemispheric communication: does the corpus callosum enable the human condition? Brain 123 (Pt 7):1293–1326CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Georgy BA, Hesselink JR, Jernigan TL (1993) MR imaging of the corpus callosum. Am J Roentgenol 160:949–955Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Giedd JN, Blumenthal J, Jeffries NO, Rajapakse JC, Vaituzis AC, Liu H, Berry YC, Tobin M, Nelson J, Castellanos FX (1999) Development of the human corpus callosum during childhood and adolescence: a longitudinal MRI study. Progress Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 23:571–588Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Giedd JN, Castellanos FX, Casey BJ, Kozuch P, King AC, Hamburger SD, Rapoport JL (1994) Quantitative morphology of the corpus callosum in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 151:665–669PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Graybill D ,Heuvelman LR (1993) Validity of the Children’s Picture-Frustration Study: a social-cognitive perspective. J Pers Assess 60:379–389PubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Gupta JK, Lilford RJ (1995) Assessment and management of fetal agenesis of the corpus callosum. Prenatal Diagnosis 15:301–312PubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Heinen F, Glocker FX, Fietzek U, Meyer BU, Lucking CH, Korinthenberg R (1998) Absence of transcallosal inhibition following focal magnetic stimulation in preschool children. Ann Neurol 43:608–612PubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Hill DE, Yeo RA, Campbell RA, Hart B, Vigil J, Brooks W (2003) Magnetic resonance imaging correlates of attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder in children. Neuropsychology 17:496–506CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D (1990) Brain morphology in developmental dyslexia and attention deficit disorder/hyperactivity. Arch Neurol 47:919–926Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Hynd GW, Semrud-Clikeman M, Lorys AR, Novey ES, Eliopulos D, Lyytinen H (1991) Corpus callosum morphology in attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder: morphometric analysis of MRI. J Learning Disabil 24:141–146Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Jancke L, Staiger JF, Schlaug G,Huang Y, Steinmetz H (1997) The relationship between corpus callosum size and forebrain volume. Cereb Cortex 7:48–56CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kates WR, Frederikse M, Mostofsky SH, Folley BS, Cooper K, Mazur-Hopkins P, Kofman O, Singer HS, Denckla MB, Pearlson GD, Kaufmann WE (2002) MRI parcellation of the frontal lobe in boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder or Tourette syndrome. Psychiatry Res 116:63–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Keshavan MS, Diwadkar VA, DeBellis M, Dick E, Kotwal R, Rosenberg DR, Sweeney JA, Minshew N, Pettegrew JW (2002) Development of the corpus callosum in childhood, adolescence and early adulthood. Life Sci 70:1909–1922CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Langleben DD, Austin G, Krikorian G, Ridlehuber HW, Goris ML, Strauss HW (2001) Interhemispheric asymmetry of regional cerebral blood flow in prepubescent boys with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Nucl Med Commun 22:1333–1340CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Levy F, Swanson JM (2001) Timing, space and ADHD: the dopamine theory revisited. Aust N Z J Psychiatry 35:504–511CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Lyoo IK, Noam GG, Lee CK, Lee HK, Kennedy BP, Renshaw PF (1996) The corpus callosum and lateral ventricles in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a brain magnetic resonance imaging study. Biol Psychiatry 40:1060–1063CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Magara F, Ricceri L, Wolfer DP, Lipp HP (2000) The acallosal mouse strain I/LnJ: a putative model of ADHD? Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24:45–50PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Mataro M, Garcia-Sanchez C, Junque C, Estevez-Gonzalez A, Pujol J (1997) Magnetic resonance imaging measurement of the caudate nucleus in adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and its relationship with neuropsychological and behavioral measures. Arch Neurol 54:963–968PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Mostofsky SH, Cooper KL, Kates WR, Denckla MB, Kaufmann WE (2002) Smaller prefrontal and premotor volumes in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Biol Psychiatry 52:785–794CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Moutard ML, Kieffer V, Feingold J, Kieffer F, Lewin F, Adamsbaum C, Gelot A, Campistol IPJ, van Bogaert P, Andre M, Ponsot G (2003) Agenesis of corpus callosum: prenatal diagnosis and prognosis. Childs Nerv System 19:471–476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Muller K, Kass-Iliyya F, Reitz M (1997) Ontogeny of ipsilateral corticospinal projections: a developmental study with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Ann Neurol 42:705–711 Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Overmeyer S, Simmons A, Santosh J, Andrew C, Williams SC, Taylor A, Chen W, Taylor E (2000) Corpus callosum may be similar in children with ADHD and siblings of children with ADHD. Devel Med Child Neurol 42:8–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Parraga HC, Parraga MI, Jensen AR (2003) Cognitive, behavioral, and psychiatric symptoms in two children with agenesis of the corpus callosum: case report. Int J Psychiatry Med 33:107–113PubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Piven J, Bailey J, Ranson BJ, Arndt S (1997) An MRI study of the corpus callosum in autism. Am J Psychiatry 154:1051–1056PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Pueyo R, Maneru C, Vendrell P, Mataro M, Estevez-Gonzalez A, Garcia-Sanchez C, Junque C (2000) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder,Cerebral asymmetry observed on magnetic resonance. Revista de Neurologia 30:920–925PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Pujol J, Vendrell P, Junque C, Marti-Vilalta JL, Capdevila A (1993) When does human brain development end? Evidence of corpus callosum growth up to adulthood. Ann Neurol 34:71–75PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Rakic P, Yakovlev PI (1968) Development of the corpus callosum and cavum septi in man. J Comp Neurol 132:45–72PubMedGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Reddy H, Lassonde M, Bemasconi N, Bemasconi A, Matthews PM, Andermann F,Amold DL (2000) A fMRI study of the lateralization of motor cortex activation in acallosal patients. Neuroreport 11:2409–2413PubMedGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Reggia JA, Goodall SM, Shkuro Y, Glezer M (2001) The callosal dilemma: explaining diaschisis in the context of hemispheric rivalry via a neural network model. Neurol Res 23:465–471CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Ringo JL, Doty RW, Demeter S, Simard PY (1994) Time is of the essence: a conjecture that hemispheric specialization arises from interhemispheric conduction delay. Cereb Cortex 4:331–343PubMedGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T (in press) Tic-Disorders. In: Gillberg C, Harrington R, Steinhausen HC (eds) Clinican’s deskbook for child and adolescent psychiatry. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Rubia K, Overmeyer S, Taylor E, Brammer M, Williams SC, Simmons A, Andrew C, Bullmore ET (2000) Functional frontalisation with age: mapping neurodevelopmental trajectories with fMRI. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24:13–19CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Rumsey JM, Casanova M, Mannheim GB, Patronas N, De Vaughn N, Hamburger SD,Aquino T (1996) Corpus callosum morphology, as measured with MRI, in dyslexic men. Biol Psychiatry 39:769–775CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Scamvougeras A, Kigar DL, Jones D, Weinberger DR, Witelson SF (2003) Size of the human corpus callosum is genetically determined: an MRI study in mono and dizygotic twins. Neurosci Letters 338:91–94Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Schaefer GB, Bodensteiner JB, Thompson JN, Jr., Wilson DA (1991) Clinical and morphometric analysis of the hypoplastic corpus callosum. Arch Neurol 48:933–936 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Schaefer GB, Thompson JN Jr, Bodensteiner JB, Hamza M, Tucker RR, Marks W, Gay C,Wilson D (1990) Quantitative morphometric analysis of brain growth using magnetic resonance imaging. J Child Neurol 5:127–130PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Schrimsher GW, Billingsley RL, Jackson EF, Moore BD 3rd (2002) Caudate nucleus volume asymmetry predicts attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptomatology in children. J Child Neurol 17:877–884PubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Schweitzer JB, Anderson C, Ernst M (2000) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: neuroimaging and behavioral/ cognitive probes. In: Ernst M, Rumsey JM (eds) Functional neuroimaging in child psychiatry. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp 278–297 Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Semrud-Clikeman M, Filipek PA, Biederman J, Steingard R, Kennedy D, Renshaw P, Bekken K (1994) Attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder: magnetic resonance imaging morphometric analysis of the corpus callosum. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 33:875–881 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Semrud-Clikeman M, Wical B (1999) Components of attention in children with complex partial seizures with and without ADHD. Epilepsia 40:211–215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Sergant J (2004) Eunethydis – searching for valid etiological candidates of ADHD or hyperkinetic disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):43–49Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Silberstein RB, Farrow M, Levy F, Pipingas A, Hay DA, Jarman FC (1998) Functional brain electrical activity mapping in boys with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 55:1105–1112CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, Toga AW, Peterson BS (2003) Cortical abnormalities in children and adolescents with attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder. The Lancet 362:1699–1707Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Stancak A Jr, Lucking CH, Kristeva- Feige R (2000) Lateralization of movement- related potentials and the size of corpus callosum. Neuroreport 11:329–332PubMedGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Steere JC, Arnsten AF (1995) Corpus callosum morphology in ADHD. Am J Psychiatry 152:1105–1106Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Thompson PM, Narr KL, Blanton RE, Toga AW (2004) Mapping Structural Alterations of the Corpus Callosum during Brain Development and Degeneration. In: Zaidel E, Iacoboni M (eds) Proceedings of the NATO ASI on the Corpus Callosum. Kluwer Academic Press, Boston (in press)Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Volpe JJ (1995) Neural tube formation and prosenecephalic development. In: Volpe JJ (ed) Neurology of the Newborn. WB Saunders, London, pp 3–42Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Witelson SF (1989) Hand and sex differences in the isthmus and genu of the human corpus callosum. A postmortem morphological study. Brain 112 (Pt 3):799–835PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Wong CW (2000) Corpus callosum and cerebral laterality in a modular brain model. Med Hypotheses 55:177–182CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Yeo RA, Hill DE, Campbell RA, Vigil J, Petropoulos H, Hart B, Zamora L, Brooks WM (2003) Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy investigation of the right frontal lobe in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:303–310CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Veit Roessner
    • 1
  • T. Banaschewski
    • 1
  • H. Uebel
    • 1
  • A. Becker
    • 1
  • A. Rothenberger
    • 1
  1. 1.University of GoettingenChild and Adolescent PsychiatryGoettingenGermany

Personalised recommendations