European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder – first upgrade

  • E. Taylor
  • M. Döpfner
  • J. Sergeant
  • P. Asherson
  • T. Banaschewski
  • J. Buitelaar
  • D. Coghill
  • M. Danckaerts
  • A. Rothenberger
  • E. Sonuga-Barke
  • H.-C. Steinhausen
  • A. Zuddas



The validity of clinical guidelines changes over time, because new evidencebased knowledge and experience develop.


Hence, the European clinical guidelines on hyperkinetic disorder from 1998 had to be evaluated and modified.


Discussions at the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders (EUNETHYDIS) and iterative critique of each clinical analysis. Guided by evidence-based information and based on evaluation (rather than metaanalysis) of the scientific evidence a group of child psychiatrists and psychologists from several European countries updated the guidelines of 1998. When reliable information is lacking the group gives a clinical consensus when it could be found among themselves.


The group presents here a set of recommendations for the conceptualisation and management of hyperkinetic disorder and attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).


A general scheme for practice in Europe could be provided, on behalf of the European Society for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry (ESCAP).


ADHD HKS guidelines European children 


  1. 1.
    Abikoff H (1991) Cognitive training in ADHD children: less to it than meets the eye. J Learning Disabil 24:205–209Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Aman MG, Turbott SH (1991) Prediction of clinical response in children taking methylphenidate. J Autism Devel Disord 21:211–228Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Aman MG, De Smedt G, Derivan A, Lyons B, Findling RL; Risperidone Disruptive Behavior Study Group (2002) Double-blind, placebo-controlled study of risperidone for the treatment of disruptive behaviors in children with subaverage intelligence. Am J Psychiatry 159:1337–1346CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Arnsten AFT (2001) Dopaminergic and noradrenergic influences on cognitive functions mediated by prefrontal cortex. In: Solanto MV, Arnsten AFT, Castellanos FX (eds) Stimulant Drugs and ADHD. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, pp 185–208Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Asghari V, Sanyal S, Buchwaldt S, Paterson A, Jovanovic V, Van Tol HH (1995) Modulation of intracellular cyclic AMP levels by different human dopamine D4 receptor variants. J Neurochemistry 65:1157–1165Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bakker SC, van der Meulen EM, Buitelaar JK, Sandkuijl LA, Pauls DL, Monsuur AJ, van ’t Slot R, Minderaa RB, Gunning WB, Pearson PL, Sinke RJ (2003) A whole-genome scan in 164 Dutch sib pairs with attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder: suggestive evidence for linkage on chromosomes 7p and 15q. Am J Human Gen 72:1251–1260CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Banaschewski T, Brandeis D, Heinrich H, Albrecht B, Brunner E, Rothenberger A (2003) Questioning inhibitory control as the specific deficit of ADHD – evidence from brain electrical activity. J Neural Transm (2004) 111(7):841–864 Epub 2003 Oct 24Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Banaschewski T, Roessner V, Dittmann RW, Santosh PJ, Rothenberger A (2004) Non-stimulant medications in the treatment of ADHD. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I102–I116Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Barkley RA (1997) Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull 121:65–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Barkley RA (1988) The effects of methylphenidate on the interactions of preschool ADHD children with their mothers. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:336–341 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barkley RA (ed) (1998) Attention- Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Handbook for Diagnosis and Treatment 2nd edn.New York, Guilford PressGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Barr CL, Feng Y, Wigg K, Bloom S, Roberts W, Malone M, Schachar R, Tannock R, Kennedy JL (2000) Identification of DNA variants in the SNAP-25 gene and linkage study of these polymorphisms and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 54:405–409 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Barry RJ, Johnstone SJ, Clarke AR (2003) A review of electrophysiology in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: II. Event-related potentials. Clin Neurophysiol 114:184–198PubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Berger A, Posner MI (2000) Pathologies of brain attentional networks. Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24:3–5PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Berkovitch M, Pope E, Phillips J, Koren G (1995) Pemoline-associated fulminant liver failure: testing the evidence for causation. Clin Pharmacol Therapy 57:696–698Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Biederman J, Faraone SV, Keenan K, Benjamin J, Krifcher B, Moore C, Sprich-Buckminster S, Ugaglia K, Jellinek MS, Steingard R, et al. (1992) Further evidence for family-genetic risk factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Patterns of comorbidity in probands and relatives psychiatrically and pediatrically referred samples. Arch Gen Psychiatry 49:728–738PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Biederman J, Milberger S, Faraone SV, Kiely K, Guite J, Mick E, Ablon S, Warburton R, Reed E (1995) Family-environment risk factors for attentiondeficit hyperactivity disorder. A test of Rutter’s indicators of adversity. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:464–470PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Blanz B, Lehmkuhl G, Poustka F, Remschmidt H, Schmidt M, Warnke A (1999) Guidelines for diagnosis and therapy. Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 27:91–92Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Bor W, Sanders MS, Markie-Dadds C (2002) The effects of the tripe P-Positve Parenting Program on preschool children with co-occurring disruptive behavior and attentional/hyperactive difficulties. J Abnorm Child Psychol 30:571–589CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Borcherding BG, Keysor CS, Rapoport JL, Elia J, Amass (1990) Motor/vocal tics and compulsive behaviors on stimulant drugs: is there a common vulnerability? Psychiatry Res 33:83–94CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Boyle MH, Offord DR, Hoffmann HG, Catlin GP, Byles JA, Cadman DT, Crawford JW, Links PS, Rae-Grant NI Szatmari P (1987) Ontario Child Health Study: I Methodology; II. Six-month prevalence of disorder and rates of service utilisation. Arch Gen Psychiatry 44:826–836 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Bramble D (2003) Annotation: The use of psychotropic medications in children: a British view. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44:169–179CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Brandeis D, Banaschewski T, Baving L, Georgiewa P, Blanz B, Warnke A, Steinhausen HC, Rothenberger A, Scheuerpflug P (2002) Multicenter P300 brain mapping of impaired attention to cues in hyperkinetic children. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:990–998 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Breslau N, Brown GG, DelDotto JE, Kumar S, Ezhuthachan S, Andreski P, Hufnagle KG (1996) Psychiatric sequelae of low birth weight at 6 years of age. J Abnorm Child Psychol 24:385–400PubMedGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Buitelaar JK, Kooij JJS (2000) Aandachtstekort/ hyperactiviteitsstoornis – ADHD. Achtergronden, diagnostiek en behandeling. Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Geneeskunde 144:1716–1723 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Buitelaar JK (2002) Epidemiology ofAttention- deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: what have we learned over the last decade? In: Sandberg S (ed) Hyperactivity Disorders. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 30–63Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Carter CM, Urbanowicz M, Hemsley R, Mantilla L, Strobel S, Graham PJ, Taylor E (1993) Effects of a few food diet in attention deficit disorder. Arch Dis Childhood 69:564–568 Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Castellanos FX (2001) Neuroimaging studies of ADHD. In: Solanto MV, Arnsten AFT, Castellanos FX (eds) Stimulant Drugs and ADHD. Basic and Clinical Neuroscience. New York, NY, Oxford University Press, pp 243–258Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Castellanos FX, Lee PP, Sharp W, Jeffries NO, Greenstein DK, Clasen LS, Blumenthal JD, James RS, Ebens CL, Walter JM, Zijdenbos A, Evans AC, Giedd JN, Rapoport JL (2002) Developmental trajectories of brain volume abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Med Assoc 288:1740–1748Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Curran S, Mill J, Tahir E, Kent L, Richards S, Gould A, Huckett L, Sharp J, Batten C, Fernando S, Ozbay F, Yazgan Y, Simonoff E, Thompson M, Taylor E, Asherson P (2001) Association study of a dopamine transporter polymorphism and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in UK and Turkish samples. Molecular Psychiatry 6:425–428PubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Daly G, Hawi Z, Fitzgerald M, Gill M (1999) Mapping susceptibility loci in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: preferential transmission of parental alleles at DAT1, DBH and DRD5 to affected children. Molecular Psychiatry 4:192–196CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Döpfner M (1996) Hyperkinetische Stoerungen. In: Petermann F (ed) Lehrbuch der Klinischen Kinderpsychologie 2nd edn. Goettingen, HogrefeGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Döpfner M, Lehmkuhl G (2003) Hyperkinetische Störungen (F90). In: Deutsche Gesellschaft für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie, Berufsverband der Ärzte für Kinderund Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie in Deutschland, Bundesarbeitsgemeinschaft der leitenden Klinikärzte für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie (eds) Leitlinien zur Diagnostik und Therapie von psychischen Störungen im Säuglings-, Kindes- und Jugendalter 2nd edn. Köln, Deutscher Ärzte Verlag, pp 237–249Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Döpfner M, Schmeck K, Poustka F, Berner W, Lehmkuhl G, Verhulst F (1996) Verhaltensauffaelligkeiten von Kindern und Jugendlichen in Deutschland, den Niederlanden und den U.S.A., Eine kulturvergleichende Studie mit der Child Behavior Checklist. Nervenarzt 67:960–967 I/26 European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 13, Supplement 1 (2004) © Steinkopff Verlag 2004 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Döpfner M, Frölich J, Lehmkuhl G (2000) Hyperkinetische Störungen. Leitfaden Kinder- und Jugendpsychotherapie Vol 1. Göttingen, HogrefeGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Döpfner M, Breuer D, Schürmann S, Wolff Metternich T, Rademacher C, Lehmkuhl G (2004) Effectiveness of an individually tailored multimodal treatment in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder – global outcome. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I117–I129Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Dougherty DD, Bonab AA, Spencer TJ, Rauch SL, Madras BK, Fischman AJ (1999) Dopamine transporter density in patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 354:2132–2133CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    DuPaul G J, Eckert TL (1997) The effects of school-based interventions for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A meta-analysis. School Psychol Rev 23:5–27 Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    DuPaul G, McGoey K, EcKert T, Van- Brackle J (2001) Preschool children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: Impairments in behavioral, social, and school functioning. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:508–515Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    DuPaul GJ, Stoner G (1994) ADHD in the Schools. Assessment and Intervention Strategies.New York, GuilfordGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Egger J, Carter CM, Graham PJ, Gumley D, Soothill JF (1985) Controlled trial of oligoantigenic treatment in the hyperkinetic syndrome. Lancet i:540–545CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Ernst M, Zametkin AJ, Matochik JA, Jons PH, Cohen RM (1998) DOPA decarboxylase activity in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder adults. A [fluorine- 18]fluorodopa positron emission tomographic study. J Neurosci 18:5901–5907PubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ernst M, Zametkin AJ, Matochik JA, Pascualvaca D, Jons PH, Cohen RM (1999) High midbrain [18F]DOPA accumulation in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 156:1209–1215PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Ernst M, Liebenauer LL, Tebeka D, Jons PH, Eisenhofer G, Murphy DL, Zametkin AJ (1997) Selegiline in ADHD adults: plasma monoamines and monoamine metabolites. Neuropsychopharmacology 16:276–284PubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Faraone SV, Biederman J (1994) Is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder familial? Harvard Rev Psychiatry 1:271–287Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Faraone SV, Doyle AE, Mick E, Biederman J (2001) Meta-analysis of the association between the 7-repeat allele of the dopamine D(4) receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Psychiatry 158:1052–1057CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Filipek PA, Semrud-Clikeman M, Steingard RJ, Renshaw PF, Kennedy DN, Biederman J (1997) Volumetric MRI analysis comparing subjects having attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder with normal controls. Neurology 48:589–601PubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Feingold BF (1975) Hyperkinesis and learning disabilities linked to artificial food flavors and colors. Am J Nursing 75:797–803Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Fuke S, Suo S, Takahashi N, Koike H, Sasagawa N, Ishiura S (2001) The VNTR polymorphism of the human dopamine transporter (DAT1) gene affects gene expression. Pharmacogenomics 1:152–156Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Gadow K, Nolan E (2002) Differences between preschool children with ODD, ADHD, and ODD & ADHD symptoms. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:191–201PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Gillberg C, Carlstrom G, Rasmussen P (1983) Hyperkinetic disorders in children with perceptual, motor and attentional deficits. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 24:233–246 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gillberg C, Melander H, von Knorring A.-L, Janols L-O, Thernlund G, Haeggloef B, Eideval-Wallin L, Gustaffson P, Kopp S (1997) Long-term stimulant treatment of children with Attention- Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder symptoms: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Arch Gen Psychiatry 54:857–864PubMedGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Gillberg C (2003) Deficits in attention, motor control, and perception: a brief review. Arch Dis Childhood 88:904–910CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Gillberg C, Gillberg IC, Rasmussen P, Kadesjö B, Söderström H, Råstam M, Johnson M, Rothenberger A, Niklasson L (2004) Co-existing disorders in ADHD – implications for diagnosis and intervention. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 13(Suppl 1):I80–I92Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Gjone H, Stevenson J, Sundet JM (1996) Genetic influence on parent-reported attention-related problems in a Norwegian general population twin sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:588–598PubMedGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Glow RA (1981) Cross-validity and normative data on the Conners’ Parent and Teacher Rating Scales. In: Gadow KD, Loney J (eds) The Psychosocial Aspects of Drug Treatment for Hyperactivity. Boulder, CO, Westview Press, pp 107–150Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Goodman R, Stevenson J (1989) A twin study of hyperactivity: I An examination of hyperactivity scores and categories derived from Rutter Teacher and Parent Questionnaires. II. The aetiological role of genes, family relationships, and perinatal adversity. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 30:671–710PubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Green WH (1991) Child and Adolescent Clinical Psychopharmacology. Baltimore, Williams & WilkinsGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Greenhill LL, Setterberg S (1993) Pharmacotherapy of disorders of adolescents. Psychiatry Clinics of North America 16:793–814Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Gross MD (1995) Buspirone in ADHD with ODD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 34:1260PubMedGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Gross-Tsur V, Manor O, v. d. Meere J, Josphe A, Shalev RS (1997) Epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Is methylphenidate safe and effective? J Pediatr 130:670–674PubMedGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Gualtieri CT, Ondrusek MG, Finley C (1985) Attention deficit disorder in adults. Clin Neuropharmacol 8:343–356PubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Halperin JM, Newcorn JH, Schwartz ST, Sharma V, Siever LJ, Koda VH, Gabriel S (1997) Age-related changes in the association between serotonergic function and aggression in boys with ADHD. Biol Psychiatry 41:682–689CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Handen BL, Feldman HM, Lurier A, Murray PJH (2000) Efficacy of methylphenidate among preschool children with developmental disabilities and ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 38:805–812Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Harrington R, Myatt T (2003) Is preadolescent mania the same condition as adult mania? A British perspective. Biol Psychiatry 53:961–969PubMedGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Hawi Z, Dring M, Kirley A, Foley D, Kent L, Craddock N, Asherson P, Curran S, Gould A, Richards S, Lawson D, Pay H, Turic D, Langley K, Owen M, O’Donovan M, Thapar A, Fitzgerald M, Gill M (2002) Serotonergic system and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): a potential susceptibility locus at the 5-HT(1B) receptor gene in 273 nuclear families from a multi-centre sample. Molecular Psychiatry 7:718–725CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Hazell PL, Carr V, Lewin TJ, Sly K (2003) Manic symptoms in young males with ADHD predict functioning but not diagnosis after 6 years. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:552–560PubMedGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Hemmer SA, Pasternak JF, Zecker SG, Trommer BL (2001) Stimulant therapy and seizure risk in children with ADHD. Pediatr Neurol 24:99–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Herbert M (1994) Behavioural methods. In: Rutter M, Hersov L, Taylor E (eds) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches 3rd edn. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp 858–879Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Hill P, Taylor E (2001) An auditable protocol for the medical management of ADHD or hyperkinetic disorder. Arch Dis Childhood 84:404–409Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    Huss M, Lehmkuhl U (2002) Methylphenidate and substance abuse: a review of pharmacology, animal, and clinical studies. J Attention Disord 6 (Suppl 1):S65–S71 Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Jadad AR, Boyle M, Cunningham C, Kim M, Schachar R (1998) The treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: an evidence report. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, US Department of Health and Human Services, Rockville, MDGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    Jadad AR, Booker L, Gauld M, Kakuma R, Boyle M, Cunningham CE, Kim M, Schachar R (1999) The treatment of attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder: an annotated bibliography and critical appraisal of published systematic reviews and meta-analysis. Can J Psychiatry 44:1025–1035PubMedGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    James A, Taylor EA (1990) Sex differences in the hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 31:437–446PubMedGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Johnston C, Fine S (1993) Methods of evaluating methylphenidate in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: acceptability, satisfaction, and compliance. J Pediatr Psychol 18:717–730PubMedGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Kadesjö B, Gillberg C (2001) The comorbidity of ADHD in the general population of Swedish school-age children. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:487–492CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Kahn RS, Khoury J, Nichols WC, Lanphear BP (2003) Role of dopamine transporter genotype and maternal prenatal smoking in childhood hyperactive- impulsive, inattentive, and oppositional behaviors. J Pediatr 143:104–110CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Kaplan BJ, McNicol J, Conte RA, Moghadam HK (1989) Dietary replacement in preschool-aged hyperactive boys. Pediatrics 83:7–17PubMedGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Kent L, Craddock N (2003) Is there a relationship between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and bipolar disorder? J Affective Disord 73:211–221CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Klein RG, Wender P (1995) The role of methylphenidate in psychiatry. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:429–433PubMedGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Köster I, Schubert I, Doepfner M, Adam C, Ihle P, Lehmkuhl G (2004) Hyperkinetische Störungen bei Kindern und Jugendlichen: Zur Häufigkeit des Behandlungsanlasses in der ambulanten Versorgung nach den Daten der Versichertenstichprobe AOK Hessen/KV Hessen (1998–2001). Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie (in press) Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Krause KH, Krause J (2000) Ist Methylphenidat bei Komorbidität von Epilepsie und Aufmerksamkeitsdefizit, – hyperaktivitätsstörungen kontraindiziert oder nicht? Aktuelle Neurologie 27:72–76Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Kuntsi J, Oosterlaan J, Stevenson J (2001) Psychological mechanisms in hyperactivity: I Response inhibition deficit, working memory impairment, delay aversion, or something else? J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:199–210PubMedGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Krause KH, Dresel SH, Krause J, Kung HF, Tatsch K (2000) Increased striatal dopamine transporter in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: effects of methylphenidate as measured by single photon emission computed tomography. Neuroscience Letters 285:107–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Lahey BB, Applegate B, McBurnett K, Biederman J, Greenhill L, Hynd GW, Barkley RA, Newcorn J, Jensen P, Richters J et al. (1994) DSM-IV field trials for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Am J Psychiatry 151:1673–1685 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    LaHoste GJ, Swanson JM, Wigal SB, Glabe C, Wigal T, King N, Kennedy JL (1996) Dopamine D4 receptor gene polymorphism is associated with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 1:121–124PubMedGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Levin FR, Evans SM, McDowell DM, Brooks DJ, Nunes E (2002) Bupropion treatment for cocaine abuse and adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Addictive Dis 21:1–16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Leung PWL, Luk SL, Ho TP, Taylor E, Mak FL, Bacon-Shone J (1996) The diagnosis and prevalence of hyperactivity in Chinese schoolboys. Br J Psychiatry 168:486–496 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Lord J, Paisley S (2000) The Clinical Effectiveness and Cost-Effectiveness of Methylphenidate for Hyperactivity in Childhood. Version 2. London: National Institute for Clinical ExcellenceGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Lynskey MT, Hall W (2001) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and substance use disorders: Is there a causal link? Addiction 96:815–822CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    McGee R, Share DL (1988) Attention deficit disorder-hyperactivity and academic failure: which comes first and what should be treated? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 27:318–325PubMedGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    McGee R, Williams S, Silva PA (1987) A comparison of girls and boys with teacher-identified problems of attention. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26:711–717 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Mariani MA, Barkley RA (1997) Neuropsychological and academic functioning in preschool boys with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Devel Neuropsychol 13:111–129 Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Maher BS, Marazita ML, Ferrell RE, Vanyukov MM (2002) Dopamine system genes and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: a meta-analysis. Psychiatr Gen 12:207–215 Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Mattes JA, Gittelman R (1981) Effects of artificial food colorings in children with hyperactive symptoms. Arch Gen Psychiatry 38:714–718PubMedGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Michelson D, Faries D, Wernicke J, Kelsey D, Kendrick K, Sallee FR, Spencer (2001) Atomoxetine in the treatment of children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a randomized, placebo-controlled, dose-response study. Pediatrics 108:E83PubMedGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Mick E, Biederman J, Faraone SV (1996) Is season of birth a risk factor for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1470–1476 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Milberger S, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Guite J, Tsuang MT (1997) Pregnancy, delivery and infancy complications and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: issues of gene-environment interaction. Biol Psychiatry 41:65–75CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Mill J, Asherson P, Browes C, D’Souza U, Craig I (2002a) Expression of the dopamine transporter gene is regulated by the 3’ UTR VNTR: Evidence from brain and lymphocytes using quantitative RT-PCR. Am J Med Gen 114:975–979CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Mill J, Curran S, Kent L, Gould A, Huckett L, Richards S, Taylor E, Asherson P (2002b) Association study of a SNAP-25 microsatellite and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Gen 114:269–271Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Misener VL, Luca P, Azeke O, Crosbie J, Waldman I, Tannock R, Roberts W, Malone M, Schachar R, Ickowicz A, Kennedy JL, Barr CL (2004) Linkage of the dopamine receptor D1 gene to attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 9:500–509CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Moll GH, Heinrich H, Trott G, Wirth S, Rothenberger A (2000) Deficient intracortical inhibition in drug-naive children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is enhanced by methylphenidate. Neuroscience Letters 284:121–125PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Moll GH, Rothenberger A, Ruether E, Huether G (2002) Developmental psychopharmacology in child and adolescent psychiatry: results of experimental animal studies with fluoextine and methylphenidate in rats. Psychopharmakotherapy 9:19–24Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Monteiro-Musten L, Firestone P, Pisterman S, Bennett S, Mercer J (1997) Effects of methylphenidate on preschool children with ADHD: Cognitive and behavioral functions. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 36:1407–1415PubMedGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    MTA Cooperative Group (1999a) A 14-month randomised clinical trial of treatment strategies for attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:1073–1086 I/28 European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 13, Supplement 1 (2004) © Steinkopff Verlag 2004 Google Scholar
  106. 106.
    MTA Cooperative Group (1999b) Moderators and mediators of treatment response for children with attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 56:1088–1096 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Nadder TS, Rutter M, Silberg JL, Maes HH, Eaves LJ (2002) Genetic effects on the variation and covariation of attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and oppositional-defiant disorder/ conduct disorder (Odd/CD) symptomatologies across informant and occasion of measurement. Psychol Med 32:39–53PubMedGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Nehra A, Mullick F, Ishak KG, Zimmerman HJ (1990) Pemoline-associated hepatic injury. Gastroenterology 99:1517–1519PubMedGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Neligan GA, Kolvin I, Scott DMcL, Garside RF (1976) Born Too Soon or Born Too Small. Clinics in Developmental Medicine No. 61. London, S. I. M. P./HeinemannGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Nichols P, Chen T-C (1981) Minimal Brain Dysfunction: A Prospective Study.Hillsdale, NJ, ErlbaumGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Oades RD (1998) Frontal, temporal and lateralized brain function in children with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: a psychophysiological and neuropsychological viewpoint on development. Behav Brain Res 94:83–95CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Pelham WE, Wheeler T, Chronis A (1998) Empirically supported psychosocial treatments for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. J Clin Child Psychol 27:190–205 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Pelham W, Waschbusch DA (1999) Behavioral intervention in attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder. In: Quay H, Hogan AE (eds) Handbook of disruptive disorders. New York, Kluwer Academic/Plenum, pp 255–278Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Pennington BF, Ozonoff S (1996) Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:51–87PubMedGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Pennington BF, Groisser D, Welsh MC (1993) Contrasting cognitive deficits in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder versus reading disability. Devel Psychol 29:511–523 Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Pliszka SR (1989) Effect of anxiety on cognition, behavior, and stimulant response in ADHD. J Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 28:882–887Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    Prendergast M, Taylor E, Rapoport JL, Bartko J, Donnelly M, Zametkin A, Ahearn MB, Dunn G, Wieselberg HM (1988) The diagnosis of childhood hyperactivity: A U. S.-UK cross-national study of DSM-III and ICD-9. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 29:289–300PubMedGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Quist JF, Barr CL, Schachar R, Roberts W, Malone M, Tannock R, Basile VS, Beitchman J, Kennedy JL (2003) The serotonin 5-HT1B receptor gene and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Molecular Psychiatry 8:98–102CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Reeve E, Garfinkel B (1991) Neuroendocrine and growth regulation: the role of sympathicomimetic medication. In: Greenhill L, Osman BB (eds) Ritalin: Theory and Management. New York, Liebert, pp 289–300Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Riggs PD, Leon SL, Mikulich SK, Pottle LC (1998) An open trial of bupropion for AD/HD in adolescents with substance use disorders and conduct disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 37:1271–1278CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Robbins TW (2002) AD/HD and addiction. Nature Medicine 8:24–25 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Robinson TE, Berridge KC (1993) The neural basis of drug craving: an incentive- sensitization theory of addiction. Brain Res Rev 18:247–291CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Ross DM, Ross SA (1982) Hyperactivity: Current Issues. Research and Theory. New York, WileyGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T (2004) Tic-Disorders. In: Gillberg C, Harrington R, Steinhausen HC (eds) A Clinician’s Handbook of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press (in press)Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Rothenberger A, Banaschewski T, Heinrich H, Moll GH, Schmidt MH, van’t Klooster B (2000) Comorbidity in ADHD-children: effects of coexisting conduct disorder or tic disorder on event-related brain potentials in an auditory selective-attention task. Eur Arch Psychiatry Clin Neurosci 250:101–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Rubia K, Overmeyer S, Taylor E, Brammer M, Williams SC, Simmons A, Bullmore ET (1999) Hypofrontality in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder during higher-order motor control: a study with functional MRI. Am J Psychiatry 156:891–896PubMedGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Rutter M, Roy P, Kreppner J (2002) Institutional care as a risk factor for inattention/ overactivity. In: Sandberg S (ed) Hyperactivity and Attention Disorders of Childhood 2nd edn. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 417–434Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Sagvolden T (2000) Behavioral validation of the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) as an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD). Neurosci Biobehav Rev 24:31–39CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Sagvolden T, Sergeant JA (1998) Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder – from brain dysfunctions to behaviour. Behav Brain Res 94:1–10PubMedGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Sandberg S (2002) Psychosocial contributions. In: Sandberg S (ed) Hyperactivity and Attention Disorder of Childhood, 2nd edn. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 367–416 Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    Santosh PJ, Taylor E (2000) Stimulant drugs. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 9 (Suppl 1):I27–I43CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Schachar RJ, Rutter M, Smith A (1981) The characteristics of situationally and pervasively hyperactive children: implications for syndrome definition. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 22:375–392PubMedGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Schachar R, Tannock R, Cunningham C (1996) Treatment. In: Sandberg S (ed) Hyperactivity Disorders of Childhood. Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, pp 433–476 Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Schachar R, Tannock R (2002) Syndromes of Hyperactivity and Attention Deficit. Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches 4th edn. Blackwell Publishing, pp 399–418 Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Scheres A, Oosterlaan J, Sergeant JA (2001) Response execution and inhibition in children with AD/HD and other disruptive disorders: the role of behavioural activation. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 42:347–357PubMedGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Schleifer M, Weiss G, Cohen N, Elman M, Cvejic H, Kruger E (1975) Hyperactivity in pre-schoolers and the effect of methylphenidate. Am J Orthopsychiatry 45:38–50 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Schmidt JK, Plück J, v. Gontard A (2002) Verzicht auf eine EEG-Diagnostik vor Beginn und unter einer Therapie mit Methylpenidat: gefährlich oder gerechtfertigt? Zeitschrift für Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie und Psychotherapie 30:295–302Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Schneider JS, Roeltgen DP (1993) Delayed matching-to-sample, object retrieval, and discrimination reversal deficits in chronic low dose MPTPtreated monkeys. Brain Research 615: 351–354CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Schubert I, Lehmkuhl G, Spengler A, Doepfner M, von Ferber L (2001) Methylphenidat bei hyperkinetischen Störungen. Deutsches Ärzteblatt 98:A541–A544 Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Schulte-Koerne G, Deimel W, Gutenbrunner C, Hennighausen K, Blank R, Rieger C, Remschmidt H (1996) Effect of an oligo-antigen diet on the behaviour of hyperkinetic children. Zeitschrift fuer Kinder- und Jugendpsychiatrie 24:176–183Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (2001) Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorders in Children and Young People. A National Clinical Guideline. Edinburgh, SIGN E. Taylor et al. I/29 European clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder – first upgrade Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Sergeant JA, Geurts H, Oosterlaan J (2002) How specific is a deficit of executive functioning for attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder? Behav Brain Res 130:3–28PubMedGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Sergeant J, Steinhausen H-C (1992) European perspectives on hyperkinetic disorder. Eur J Child Psychiatry 1:34–41Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Shaffer D, Gould M S, Brasic J et al. (1983) A children’s global assessment scale (CGAS). Arch Gen Psychiatry 40:1228–1231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Silberg J, Rutter M, Meyer J, Maes H, Hewitt J, Simonoff E, Pickles A, Loeber R, Eaves L (1996) Genetic and environmental influences of the covariation between hyperactivity and conduct disturbance in juvenile twins. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 37:803–816PubMedGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    Singer HS, Brown J, Quaskey S, Rosenberg LA, Mellits ED, Denckla MB (1995) The treatment of Attention Deficit-Hyperactivity Disorder in Tourette’s syndrome: A double-blind placebo-controlled study with clonidine and desipramine. Pediatrics 95:74–81PubMedGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Smalley SL, Kustanovich V, Minassian SL, Stone JL, Ogdie MN, McGough JJ, McCracken JT, MacPhie IL, Francks C, Fisher SE, Cantor RM, Monaco AP, Nelson SF (2002) Genetic linkage of attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder on chromosome 16p13, in a region implicated in autism. Am J Human Gen 71:959–963CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Smith KM, Daly M, Fischer M, Yiannoutsos CT, Bauer L, Barkley R, Navia BA (2003) Association of the dopamine beta hydroxylase gene with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: genetic analysis of the Milwaukee longitudinal study. Am J Med Gen 15; 119B(1):77–85 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Smith A, Taylor E, Rogers JW, Newman S, Rubia K (2002) Evidence for a pure time perception deficit in children with ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 43:529–542 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Solanto MV, Abikoff H, Sonuga-Barke E, Schachar R, Logan GD, Wigal T, Hechtman L, Hinshaw S, Turkel E (2001) The ecological validity of delay aversion and response inhibition as measures of impulsivity in AD/HD: a supplement to the NIMH multimodal treatment study of AD/HD. J Abnorm Child Psychol 29:215–228PubMedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Sonuga-Barke E (2003) The dual pathway model of AD/HD: an elaboration of neuro-developmental characteristics. Neurosci & Biobehav Rev 27:593–604Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    Sonuga-Barke EJ (2002) Psychological heterogeneity in AD/HD – a dual pathway model of behaviour and cognition. Behav Brain Res 130:29–36CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Sonuga-Barke EJS, Daley D, Thompson M, Swanson J (2003) The management of preschool AD/HD; Addressing uncertainties about syndrome validity, diagnostic utility and treatment safety. Expert Reviews in Neurotherapeutics 3:89–100Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Sonuga-Barke EJS, Dalen L, Remington RE (2003) Do delay aversion and inhibitory deficits make distinct contributions to pre-school AD/HD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 42:1335–1342PubMedGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Sonuga-Barke EJS, Daley D, Thompson M, Laver-Bradbury C, Weekes A (2001) Parent-based therapies for preschool attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A randomized, controlled trial with a community sample. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:402–408CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Sonuga-Barke EJS, Thompson M, Stevenson J, Viney D (1997) Patterns of behaviour problems among preschool children. Psychol Med 27:909–918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Sowell ER, Thompson PM, Welcome SE, Henkenius AL, Toga AW, Peterson BS (2003) Cortical abnormalities in children and adolescents with attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder. Lancet 362(9397):1699–1707CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Spencer T, Biederman J, Harding M, O’Donnell D, Faraone SV, Wilens TE (1996) Growth deficits in ADHD children revisited: Evidence for disorderassociated growth delays? J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1460–1469PubMedGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Spencer T, Wilens T, Biederman J, Faraone SV, Ablon JS, Lapey K (1995) A double-blind, crossover comparison of methylphenidate and placebo in adults with childhood onset attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 52:434–443PubMedGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Sprafkin J, Gadow KD, Nolan EE (2001) The utility of a DSM-IV-referenced screening instrument for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Emotion Behav Disord 9:182–191 Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Steinhausen H-C (1987) Global Assessment of Child Psychopathology. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 26:203–206PubMedGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Swanson JM, Kraemer HC, Hinshaw SP, Arnold LE, Conners CK, Abikoff H B, Clevenger W, Davies M, Elliott GR, Greenhill LL, Hechtman L, Hoza B, Jensen PS, March JS, Newcorn JH, Owens EB, Pelham WE, Schiller E, Severe JB, Simpson S, Vitiello B,Wells K, Wigal T, Wu M (2001) Clinical relevance of the primary findings of the MTA: success rates based on severity of ADHD and ODD symptoms at the end of treatment. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 40:168–179PubMedGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Swanson JM, Sergeant JA, Taylor E, Sonuga-Barke EJS, Jensen PJ, Cantwell DP (1998) Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and hyperkinetic disorder. The Lancet 351:429–433CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Taylor E, Chadwick O, Heptinstall E, Danckaerts M (1996) Hyperactivity and conduct problems as risk factors for adolescent development. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1213–1226PubMedGoogle Scholar
  165. 165.
    Taylor E, Sandberg ST (1984) Hyperactive behavior in English schoolchildren: A questionnaire survey. J Abnorm Child Psychol 12:143–156PubMedGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Taylor E, Sandberg S, Thorley G, Giles S (1991) The Epidemiology of Childhood Hyperactivity. Maudsley Monographs 33. Oxford, Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Taylor E, Schachar R, Thorle G, Wieselberg M (1986) Conduct disorder and hyperactivity. Br J Psychiatry 149:760–767PubMedGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Taylor E, Schachar R, Thorley G, Wieselberg HM, Everit B, Rutter M (1987) Which boys respond to stimulant medication? A controlled trial of methylphenidate in boys with disruptive behaviour. Psychol Med 17:121–143PubMedGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Taylor E, Sergeant J, Döpfner M, Gunning B, Overmeyer S, Mobius HJ, Eisert H-G (1998) Clinical guidelines for hyperkinetic disorder. Eur Child Adolesc Psychiatry 7:184–200 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Taylor E (1994) Syndromes of attention deficit and overactivity. In: Rutter M, Taylor E, Hersov L (eds) Child and Adolescent Psychiatry: Modern Approaches. Oxford, Blackwell Scientific Publications, pp 285–307Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Thapar A, Fowler T, Rice F, Scourfield J, van den Bree M, Thomas H, Harold G, Hay D (2003) Maternal smoking during pregnancy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms in offspring. Am J Psychiatry 160:1985–1989CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Thapar A, Hervas A, McGuffin P (1995) Childhood hyperactivity scores are highly heritable and show sibling competition effects: twin study evidence. Behavior Gen 25:537–544 Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Thapar A, Holmes J, Poulton K, Harrington R (1999) Genetic basis of attention deficit and hyperactivity. Br J Psychiatry 174:105–111PubMedGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Toplak ME, Rucklidge JJ, Hetherington R, John SC, Tannock R (2003) Time perception deficits in attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder and comorbid reading difficulties in child and adolescent samples. J Child Psychol Psychiatry 44:888–903 I/30 European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Vol. 13, Supplement 1 (2004) © Steinkopff Verlag 2004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Todd RD, Rasmussen ER, Neuman RJ, Reich W, Hudziak JJ, Bucholz KK, Madden PA, Heath A (2001) Familiality and heritability of subtypes of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder in a population sample of adolescent female twins. Am J Psychiatry 158:1891–1898 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    van Leeuwen TH, Steinhausen HC, Overtoom CC, Pascual-Marqui RD, van’t Klooster B, Rothenberger A, Sergeant JA, Brandeis D (1998) The continuous performance test revisited with neuroelectric mapping: impaired orienting in children with attention deficits. Behav Brain Res 94:97–110PubMedGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Volkow ND, Swanson JM (2003) Variables that affect the clinical use and abuse of methylphenidate in the treatment of AD/HD. Am J Psychiatry 160:1909–1918CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Volkow ND, Wang GJ, Fowler JS, Fischman M, Foltin R, Abumrad NN, Gatley SJ, Logan J, Wong C, Gifford A, Ding YS, Hitzemann R, Pappas N (1999) Methylphenidate and cocaine have a similar in vivo potency to block dopamine transporters in the human brain. Life Sciences 65:L7–L12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Wender PH, Wood DR, Reimherr FW (1985) Pharmacological treatment of attention deficit disorder, residual type. Psychopharmacol Bull 21:222–231PubMedGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Wilens TE, Biederman J, Baldessarini RJ, Geller B, Schleifer D, Spencer TJ, Birmaher B, Goldblatt A (1996) Cardiovascular effets of therapeutic doses of tricyclic antidepressants in children and adolescents. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 35:1491–1501PubMedGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Wilens TE, Biederman J, Brown S, Tanguay S, Monuteaux MC, Blake C, Spencer TJ (2002) Psychiatric comorbidity and functioning in clinically referred preschool children and schoolage youths with ADHD. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry 41:262–268PubMedGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Wilens TE, Biederman J (1992) The stimulants. In: Shafer D (ed) Psychiatric Clinics of North America. Philadelphia, Pa., WB, Saunders, pp 191–222Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Wilens TE, Biederman J, Mick E, Faraone SV, SpencerT (1997) Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (AD/ HD) is associated with early onset substance use disorders. J Nerv Mental Dis 185:475–482Google Scholar
  184. 184.
    Wilens TE, Faraone SV, Biederman J, Gunawardene S (2003) Does stimulant therapy of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder beget later substance abuse? A meta-analytic review of the literature. Pediatrics 111:179–185PubMedGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, Smith SD, Cardon LR, Gayan J, Knopik VS, Olson RK, DeFries JC (2002) Quantitative trait locus for reading disability on chromosome 6p is pleiotropic for attention- deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Gen 114:260–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Willcutt EG, Pennington BF, DeFries JC (2000) Twin study of the etiology of comorbidity between reading disability and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Am J Med Gen 96:293–301CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    World Health Organization (1996) Multiaxial classification of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders. The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioral disorders in children and adolescents. Cambridge, Cambridge University PressGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Yordanova J, Banaschewski T, Kolev V, Woerner W, Rothenberger A (2001) Abnormal early stages of task stimulus processing in children with attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder – evidence from event-related gamma oscillations. Clin Neurophysiol 112:1096–1108 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    Yordanova J, Banaschewski T, Kolev V, Woerner W, Rothenberger A (2001) Abnormal early stages of task stimulus processing in children with attention- deficit hyperactivity disorder – evidence from event-related gamma oscillations. Clin Neurophysiol 112:241–247CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Zametkin AJ, Liebenauer LL, Fitzgerald GA, King AC, Minkunas DV, Herscovitch P,Yamada EM,Cohen RM (1993) Brain metabolism in teenagers with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. Arch Gen Psychiatry 50:333–340 PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Steinkopff Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • E. Taylor
    • 1
  • M. Döpfner
    • 2
  • J. Sergeant
    • 3
  • P. Asherson
    • 4
  • T. Banaschewski
    • 5
  • J. Buitelaar
    • 6
  • D. Coghill
    • 7
  • M. Danckaerts
    • 8
  • A. Rothenberger
    • 5
  • E. Sonuga-Barke
    • 9
  • H.-C. Steinhausen
    • 10
  • A. Zuddas
    • 11
  1. 1.Dept. of Child & Adolescent PsychiatryInstitute of Psychiatry Kings College LondonLondon, SE5 8AFUK
  2. 2.Psychiatry and Psychotherapy of Childhood & AdolescenceUniversity of CologneKoelnGermany
  3. 3.Dept. of Clinical NeuropsychologyFaculty of Psychology & Education Vrije UniversitatAmsterdamThe Netherlands
  4. 4.MRC Social Genetic & Developmental Research CentreInstitute of Psychiatry Kings College LondonLondonUK
  5. 5.Dept. of Child & Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of GoettingenGoettingenGermany
  6. 6.Dept. of PsychiatryUMC St RadboudNijmegenThe Netherlands
  7. 7.Dept. of PsychiatryUniversity of DundeeDundeeScotland
  8. 8.Dept. Child & Adolescent PsychiatryU. Z. GasthuisbergLeuvenBelgium
  9. 9.Dept. of PsychologyUniversity of SouthamptonSouthamptonUK
  10. 10.Dept. of Child & Adolescent PsychiatryUniversity of ZurichZurichSwitzerland
  11. 11.Child NeuropsychiatryDept. Neuroscience University of CagliariCagliariItaly

Personalised recommendations