Bone sialoprotein-induced reparative dentinogenesis in the pulp of rat’s molar
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Bone sialoprotein (BSP), an osteogenic protein (OP), mixed with a carrier, was implanted in the pulp of rat first upper molars (OP group). Cavities were prepared with dental burs and pulp perforation was carried out by pressure with the tip of a steel probe. After 8, 14, and 30 days, the rats were killed and the pulps of the OP group were compared with (1) a sham group (S group), (2) a group where the carrier was implanted alone (C group), and (3) capping with calcium hydroxide (Ca group). After 8 days, a few inflammatory cells were seen, mostly located at the pulp surface near the perforation. In the Ca group, a dentin bridge started to form, in contrast to the other groups. After 15 days, globular structures were seen in the pulps of the S and C groups. A reparative osteodentin bridge isolated the pulp from the cavity in the Ca group. Variable reactions were seen in the OP group, with some evidence of cell and matrix alignments or plugs of osteodentin in continuity with an inner layer of reparative dentin. After 30 days, irregular osteodentin formation was observed in the pulps of the S and C groups, with a tendency for globular structures to merge, but with interglobular spaces filled by pulp remnants. In the Ca group, osteodentin was observed in the mesial part of the pulp chamber. In the BSP-implanted group, the osteogenic protein stimulated the formation of a homogeneous dentin-like deposit occupying most of the mesial part of the pulp. Apparently, BSP stimulates the differentiation of cells which secrete an organized extracellular matrix more efficiently than any other capping material used so far. Altogether, the results reported here support that bone sialoprotein displays novel bioactive properties and is capable of stimulating in 1 month’s time the development of a thick reparative dentinal tissue in the pulp, occluding the perforation and filling the mesial third of the pulp chamber.
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