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Gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in type 1 diabetic children with gingivitis

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Abstract

Objective

This study aimed to evaluate the levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in gingival crevicular fluid of diabetic children with gingivitis.

Methodology

Eighty-eight children (44 with type 1 diabetes mellitus and 44 systemically healthy) were recruited for the study. The children were divided into four subgroups based on their periodontal and systemic condition: (1) systemically and periodontally healthy children (H), (2) systemically healthy children with gingivitis (G), (3) periodontally healthy children with T1DM (T1DM + H), and (4) children with T1DM and gingivitis (T1DM + G). The plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, and GCF volume were recorded. The IL-18 and TNF-α levels in GCF were determined by ELISA.

Results

The clinical periodontal parameters, GCF IL-18 level, and TNF-α level were similar between diabetic and systemically healthy children (p > 0.05). The gingivitis subgroups had a significantly higher GI, PI, PPD, GCF volume, and TNF-α total amounts than the H subgroups (p < 0.0001). The IL-18 concentrations in the gingivitis subgroups were significantly lower than in the periodontally healthy subgroups.

Conclusions

In diabetic children with good metabolic control, T1DM did not affect the GCF levels of IL-18 and TNF-α in the presence of gingivitis. However, increased GCF TNF-α levels in children with gingivitis confirm that TNF-α is closely related to gingival inflammation.

Clinical relevance

Type 1 diabetes mellitus is not associated with GCF interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels in children with gingivitis.

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Author information

Sultan Keles and Ahmet Anik conceived the ideas; Sultan Keles and Ahmet Anik collected the data; SK., OC, BIA, and Ayse ANİK analyzed the data; and SK led the writing.

Correspondence to Sultan Keles.

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Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Adnan Menderes University Faculty of Dentistry Clinical Investigations Ethics Committee.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all of the individual participants and their parents/caregivers included in the present study.

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Keles, S., Anik, A., Cevik, O. et al. Gingival crevicular fluid levels of interleukin-18 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha in type 1 diabetic children with gingivitis. Clin Oral Invest (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-020-03238-z

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Keywords

  • Gingival crevicular fluid
  • Gingivitis
  • Diabetes mellitus