Root caries lesions inhibition and repair using commercial high-fluoride toothpastes with or without tri-calcium phosphate and conventional toothpastes containing or not 1.5% arginine CaCO3: an in situ investigation

  • Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo Campos Velo
  • Maria Angélica Silvério Agulhari
  • Daniela Rios
  • Ana Carolina Magalhães
  • Heitor Marques Honório
  • Linda WangEmail author
Original Article



This double-blind, crossover, and in situ study evaluated the effect of commercial high-F toothpastes with or without functionalized β-tri-calcium phosphate (fTCP) and conventional-F toothpaste containing or not 1.5% arginine-CaCO3 in preventing and repairing root caries-like lesions.


Twelve volunteers wore palatal appliances containing sound (S) and pre-demineralized (PD) bovine root dentin blocks in 4 phases of 14 days/each. They used F toothpastes, 3×/day: (i) 1,450 μg F/g (conventional-F); (ii) 1,450 μg F/g + 1.5% arginine-CaCO3 (conventional-F + arginine/CaCO3); (iii) 5,000 μg F/g (high-F); and (iv) 5,000 μg F/g (high-F + fTCP). Sucrose solution (20%) was dropped 8×/day on the S blocks. The demineralization in the S blocks and the remineralization in the PD ones were estimated by % of surface hardness difference (%SH-S) and % of SH recovery (%SHR-PD), respectively. Caries lesion area (ΔS) was determined in the blocks. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA/Kruskal-Wallis and multiple comparisons tests (p < 0.05).


Both high-F toothpastes presented similar effect to prevent early caries lesions and it was higher than conventional-F + arginine/CaCO3. All treatments resulted in significantly lower ΔS values compared with conventional-F toothpaste (p < 0.0001). High-F + fTCP showed non-significantly higher preventive and reversible effect compared to high-F. The effect of conventional-F + arginine/CaCO3 was similar to high-F and lower than high-F + fTCP in preventing and reverting in-deep caries lesions.


Overall, high-F toothpastes seem to be more effective and interesting feasible strategy for both prevention and remineralization actions in root dentin.

Clinical relevance

With the trend of increasing dentin root caries, this study brings new evidences about the preventive and repair effect of high-F toothpastes with or without fTCP in root caries and support the use of arginine in toothpastes.


Demineralization Fluoride Root dentin Dentifrice 



We thank FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation) for the concession of a scholarship to the first author (Proc. 2015/00817-2) and for the microradiography analyses (grant no. 2009/53849-8). The authors thank the volunteers for their participation, Audria Veronez for their technical support during the study and Leonardo Ceregatti for the support with statistical analysis. We are also grateful to Ms. Larissa Tercilia Grizzo, for technical assistance.

Funding information

This work was supported by FAPESP (São Paulo Research Foundation) (Proc. 2015/00817-2).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This study has been approved by the local research ethics committee. All procedures performed in this study involving human volunteers were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marilia Mattar de Amoêdo Campos Velo
    • 1
  • Maria Angélica Silvério Agulhari
    • 1
  • Daniela Rios
    • 2
  • Ana Carolina Magalhães
    • 3
  • Heitor Marques Honório
    • 2
  • Linda Wang
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Operative Dentistry, Endodontics and Dental Materials, Bauru School of DentistryUniversity of São PauloBauruBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, Orthodontics and Public Health, Bauru School of DentistryUniversity of São PauloBauruBrazil
  3. 3.Department of Biological Sciences, Bauru School of DentistryUniversity of São PauloBauruBrazil

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