In vitro remineralization of enamel white spot lesions with a carrier-based amorphous calcium phosphate delivery system

  • Fang Hua
  • Jiarong Yan
  • Shikai Zhao
  • Hongye YangEmail author
  • Hong HeEmail author
Original Article



To achieve in vitro remineralization of enamel white spot lesions (WSLs) via a mesoporous delivery system of amorphous calcium phosphate (ACP) precursors.

Materials and methods

Amine-functionalized expanded pore mesoporous silica (aMSN) was loaded with polyacrylic acid–stabilized amorphous calcium phosphate (PAA-ACP) to develop a carrier-based delivery system (PAA-ACP@aMSN). Thirty-six artificial WSLs samples were created and randomly assigned to three treatments: artificial saliva solution (negative control, n = 12), casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) slurry (n = 12), and PAA-ACP@aMSN slurry (n = 12). Surface microhardness, Raman intensity, and color were measured before/after artificial demineralization and after remineralization treatments to evaluate the remineralization level of each sample. SEM images were taken on the surface and cross-section of samples to observe microstructure changes.


The surface microhardness recovery ratio (%SMHRR), Raman intensity change ratio (%ICR), and color recovery ratio (%CRR) were not significantly different between CPP-ACP and PAA-ACP@aMSN groups (P > 0.05), but both of them had significantly higher %SMHRR, %ICR, and %CRR values than negative control (P < 0.01). SEM images showed that apparent enamel prism imprints and inter-prism gaps in negative control were masked by mineral deposition in the PAA-ACP@aMSN and CPP-ACP groups.


PAA-ACP@aMSN has an ability to remineralize enamel WSLs.

Clinical relevance

The carrier-based amorphous calcium phosphate delivery system has great potential to serve as a remineralizing agent for the treatment of WSLs.


Enamel Remineralization White spot lesions Amorphous calcium phosphate Mesoporous silica 


Funding information

This research was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 81701012) and China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2018 M640735).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. While the ethical research protocol was approved by the Ethics Committee for Human Studies of the School & Hospital of Stomatology, Wuhan University (No. 2017-49)

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


The funders had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, or in the decision to publish the results.

Supplementary material

784_2019_3073_MOESM1_ESM.docx (98 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 98 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.The State Key Laboratory Breeding Base of Basic Science of Stomatology (Hubei-MOST) & Key Laboratory of Oral Biomedicine Ministry of Education, School & Hospital of StomatologyWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  2. 2.Department of Orthodontics, School & Hospital of StomatologyWuhan UniversityWuhanChina
  3. 3.Division of Dentistry, School of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Biology, Medicine and Health, Manchester Academic Health Science CentreUniversity of ManchesterManchesterUK
  4. 4.Department of Prosthodontics, School & Hospital of StomatologyWuhan UniversityWuhanChina

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