Mechanical stability of all-ceramic abutments retained with three different screw materials in two-piece zirconia implants—an in vitro study

  • Michael Stimmelmayr
  • Anna Lang
  • Florian Beuer
  • Sonia Mansour
  • Kurt Erdelt
  • Gerald Krennmair
  • Jan-Frederik Güth
Original Article



To measure the abutment rotation and fracture load of two-piece zirconia implants screwed with three different abutment screw materials.

Material and methods

Thirty-six zirconia implants with 36 zirconia abutments were distributed into 3 test groups: group G connected with gold screws, group T with titanium screws, and group P with peek screws. In the first part of the study, the rotation angle of the abutments was measured. The second part of the study measured the maximum fracture force of adhesively bonded lithium disilicate crowns after artificial aging and fracture modes were reported.


In group G, the median rotation angle was 8.0°, in group T 11.6°, and in group P 9.5°. After artificial aging, no screw loosening, crown, abutment, or implant fracture occurred. The median fracture force in group G was 250 N, in group T 263 N, and in group P 196 N.


Rotation angles and fracture loads of two-piece zirconia implants with gold, titanium, or peek screws showed no significant differences; however, fracture loads showed inferior results for group P.

Clinical relevance

The indication for the material peek as an abutment screw is still questionable and should be considered carefully.


All-ceramic implant All-ceramic abutment Two-piece implant Fatigue load test Abutment screw material 



The study was funded by Swiss Dental Solutions. Funding number 82672009 LMU Munich.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael Stimmelmayr
    • 1
    • 2
  • Anna Lang
    • 2
  • Florian Beuer
    • 3
  • Sonia Mansour
    • 3
  • Kurt Erdelt
    • 2
  • Gerald Krennmair
    • 4
  • Jan-Frederik Güth
    • 2
  1. 1.Private Practice for Oral SurgeryChamGermany
  2. 2.Department of ProsthodonticsUniversity of MunichMunichGermany
  3. 3.Department of Prosthodontics and GerontostomtologyUniversity of BerlinBerlinGermany
  4. 4.Dental SchoolUniversity of ViennaViennaAustria

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