Photo-activated implants: a triple-blinded, split-mouth, randomized controlled clinical trial on the resistance to removal torque at various healing intervals

  • Algirdas Puisys
  • Markus Schlee
  • Tomas Linkevicius
  • Pantelis Petrakakis
  • Antje Tjaden
Original Article



Hydrophilic implant surfaces promote faster osseointegration of dental implants with a higher bone-implant contact (BIC) rate. Animal and in vitro studies proved that ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of titanium implants regains hydrophilicity. Clinical impact is still unclear. The objective of this RCT was to assess the removal torque (RT) required to unfix a surface-treated implant (test group) versus the original surface implant (control group) performed at various points in time. The null hypothesis stated that test and control implants will show the same deliberation force at specific time points.

Material and methods

One hundred eighty partially edentulous patients were randomly assigned to six groups. In single-stage surgery, each patient received one test and one control implant. In total, 180 test and 180 control implants were placed epicrestally. Test implants received a surface treatment with UV irradiation prior to insertion, in order to reduce carbon and enhance hydrophilicity and thus wettability. Maximum RT values for test and control implants were recorded with a torque measuring device at implant placement (T1), after 1 (group 1), 2 (group 2), 3 (group 3), 4 (group 4), 6 (group 5) (T2), and 8 weeks (group 6) of healing. Subsequently, implants were returned to their original position for the continuation of the healing process.


No implant was lost. Age, gender, smoking, implant position, and bone quality could be excluded as confounding factors because of the lack of statistical significance. At T2, RT values were higher for test implants compared with those for control implants, being statistically significant in groups 2, 3, 4, and 6 (p < 0.05).


Our data support rejection of the null hypothesis.

Clinical relevance

Photo-activation of the surface of titanium implants leads to higher resistance to RT forces compared with that of non-treated implants, indicating improved healing and implant stability especially in the early healing phase.


Removal torque Photo-activated implants healing intervals Hydrophilicity Bone to implant contact rate 



The authors thank Dipl. Math. Ulrike von Hehn for her statistical support.


The study was supported by a grant from Ushio. The implants were provided by BioHorizons. W+H provided the calibrated drilling device.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.VilniusLithuania
  2. 2.ForchheimGermany
  3. 3.DuesseldorfGermany
  4. 4.ForchheimGermany

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