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Polymerization pattern characterization within a resin-based composite cured using different curing units at two distances

  • Afnan O. Al-ZainEmail author
  • George J. Eckert
  • Henry Lukic
  • Spiro Megremis
  • Jeffrey A. Platt
Original Article
  • 23 Downloads

Abstract

Objectives

To investigate the relationship of the irradiance-beam-profile areas from six different light-curing units (LCUs) with the degree of conversion (DC), microhardness (KH), and cross-link density (CLD) throughout a resin-based composite (RBC) cured at two clinically relevant distances, and to explore the correlations among them.

Materials and methods

A mapping approach was used to measure DC using micro-Raman spectroscopy, KH using a Knoop indentor on a hardness tester, and %KH reduction after ethanol exposure, as an indicator for CLD within a nano-hybrid RBC increment (n = 3) at various depths. These sample composites were cured from two distances while maintaining the radiant exposure, using six different light-curing units: one quartz-tungsten-halogen; two single and three multiple-emission-peak light-emitting-diode units. Irradiance beam profiles were generated for each LCU at both distances, and localized irradiance values were calculated. Points across each depth were analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA. Correlations across multiple specimen locations and associations between beam uniformity corresponding with polymerization measurements were calculated using linear mixed models and Pearson correlation coefficients.

Results

Significant non-uniform polymerization patterns occurred within the specimens at various locations and depths. At 2-mm curing distance, the localized DC = 52.7–76.8%, KH = 39.0–66.7 kg/mm2, and %KH reduction = 26.7–57.9%. At 8-mm curing distance, the localized DC = 50.4–78.6%, KH = 40.3–73.7 kg/mm2, and %KH reduction = 28.2–56.8%. The localized irradiance values were weakly correlated with the corresponding DC, KH, and %KH reduction, with only a few significant correlations (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

Although significant differences were observed at each depth within the specimens, the localized irradiance values for all LCUs did not reflect the polymerization pattern and did not seem to have a major influence on polymerization patterns within the RBC, regardless of the curing distance.

Clinical relevance

Commonly used LCUs do not produce uniform polymerization regardless of the curing distance, which may contribute to the risk of RBC fracture.

Keywords

Degree of conversion Microhardness Cross-link density Resin composite Beam profile Light-curing unit 

Notes

Acknowledgments

The work is part of the PhD dissertation for Dr. A. O. Al-Zain. The scholarship support from King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, and the technical assistance received from UITS/PTI Advanced Visualization Lab at Indiana University are acknowledged.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Restorative Dentistry DepartmentFaculty of Dentistry, King Abdulaziz UniversityJeddahSaudi Arabia
  2. 2.Department of Biostatistics, Indiana University School of MedicineIndiana University Purdue University IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA
  3. 3.Research and StandardsAmerican Dental Association Science InstituteChicagoUSA
  4. 4.Department of Biomedical and Applied Sciences, Indiana University School of DentistryIndiana University Purdue University IndianapolisIndianapolisUSA

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