Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 10, pp 3731–3738 | Cite as

Changes in proinflammatory gene expression in human whole blood after contact with UV-conditioned implant surfaces

  • Sönke HarderEmail author
  • Elgar Susanne Quabius
  • Fabian Meinke
  • Christian Mehl
  • Matthias Kern
Original Article



The aim of this in vitro study was to assess changes in the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines in human whole blood after contact with titanium implant surfaces conditioned by UV light. To this end, expression levels of proinflammatory cytokines were analyzed in vitro in human whole blood.

Materials and methods

Dental implants made of grade 4 titanium were conditioned by UV light in a UV device and submerged in human whole blood. Unconditioned implants served as controls, and blood samples without implants served as the negative control group. Sampling was performed at 1, 8, and 24 h. Changes in the expression levels of interleukin-1β (IL1B) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) were assessed using RT-qPCR at the mRNA level.


The gene expression of IL1B was significantly suppressed in the test group over the observation period compared to the control group during the 1–8 h after having contact between the implant surface and the blood. The gene expression of TNF was not significantly altered by UV conditioning after 1 and 8 h of observation, but both cytokine expression levels were increased significantly after 24 h.


Differences in the gene expression of proinflammatory cytokines after insertion of UV-conditioned titanium implants can be assessed using a human whole blood test. UV-conditioned implant surfaces apparently suppress the release of IL1B in vitro.

Clinical relevance

The results of our publication demonstrate that modulation of the early inflammatory response in human whole blood is possible by surface treatment with UV light. In particular, the suppression of IL1B expression, especially after the initial contact of blood cells, may be beneficial in the osseointegration of titanium implants by positively influence the balance between rejection and acceptance of an implant.


Implants Gene expression analysis UV Proinflammatory cytokines Osseointegration Photofunctionalization 



The authors gratefully acknowledge the excellent technical assistance of Hilke Clasen (Department of Immunology at the University Hospital Schleswig-Holstein, Campus Kiel).


The work was supported by a material donation of the Oral Reconstruction Foundation (former Camlog Foundation) (grant CF11602), Baseland, Switzerland, and a grant from the German Society for Prosthetic Dentistry and Biomaterials (DGPro), Hannover, Germany.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors. All applicable international, national, and/or institutional guidelines for the care and use of animals were followed. All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Prosthodontics, Propaedeutics and Dental Materials, School of DentistryChristian-Albrechts University KielKielGermany
  2. 2.Institute of ImmunologyChristian-Albrechts University KielKielGermany
  3. 3.Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Head and Neck SurgeryChristian-Albrechts University KielKielGermany

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