Anticaries effect of toothpaste with nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate
- 98 Downloads
To evaluate the effect of a fluoride toothpaste containing nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) on enamel demineralization on the biochemical composition and insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in biofilm formed in situ.
This crossover double-blind study consisted of four phases (7 days each), in which 12 volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing four enamel bovine blocks. The cariogenic challenge was performed using 30% sucrose solution (6×/day). Blocks were treated 3×/day with the following toothpastes: no F/HMP/HMPnano (Placebo), conventional fluoride toothpaste, 1100 ppm F (1100F), 1100F + 0.5% micrometric HMP (1100F/HMP), and 1100F + 0.5% nano-sized HMP (1100F/HMPnano). The percentage of surface hardness loss (%SH), integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), and enamel calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F) were determined. Moreover, biofilms formed on the blocks were analyzed for F, Ca, P, and insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) concentrations. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by Student–Newman–Keuls’ test (p < 0.001).
1100F/HMPnano promoted the lowest %SH and ΔKHN among all groups (p < 0.001). The addition of HMPnano to 1100F significantly increased Ca concentrations (p < 0.001). The 1100F/HMPnano promoted lower values of EPS when compared with 1100F (~ 70%) (p < 0.001) and higher values of fluoride and calcium in the biofilms (p < 0.001).
1100F/HMPnano demonstrated a greater protective effect against enamel demineralization and on the composition of biofilm in situ when compared to 1100F toothpaste.
This toothpaste could be a viable alternative to patients at high risk of caries.
KeywordsCaries Biofilm Fluoride Demineralization Nano-sized
We thank the volunteers for their participation in the study, CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education Personnel), FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation, grant 2016/03148-7), and CNPq/PQ (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, grant 308981/2014-6) for the concession of a scholarship to the first, second, fourth, and eighth authors, respectively.
This study was supported by CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education Personnel), FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation, grant 2016/03148-7), and CNPq/PQ (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, grant 308981/2014-6).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors Marcelle Danelon, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Juliano Pelim Pessan, and Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo hold a patent request for a product used in the study, by the National Institute of Industrial Property—INPI/SP, on October 17, 2014 under number BR 10 2014 025902 3.
This study was approved by the Human Ethical Committee of São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Brazil (Protocol: 58549716.8.0000.5420).
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 4.Dalpasquale G, Delbem ACB, Pessan JP, Nunes GP, Gorup LF, Souza-Neto FN, Camargo ER, Danelon M (2017) Effect of the addition of nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate to fluoride toothpastes on tooth demineralization: an in vitro study. Clin Oral Investig 21:1821–1827. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2093-3 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 11.do Amaral JG, Martinhon CC, Delbem ACB (2013) Effect of low-fluoride toothpastes supplemented with calcium glycerophosphate on enamel demineralization in situ. Am J Dent 26:75–80Google Scholar
- 13.Delbem AC, Sassaki KT, Vieira AE, Rodrigues E, Bergamaschi M, Stock SR, Cannon ML, Xiao X, De Carlo F, Delbem ACB (2009) Comparison of methods for evaluating mineral loss: hardness versus synchrotron microcomputed tomography. Caries Res 43:359–365. https://doi.org/10.1159/000231573 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 14.Danelon M, Takeshita EM, Sassaki KT, Delbem ACB (2013) In situ evaluation of a low fluoride concentration gel with sodium trimetaphosphate in enamel remineralization. Am J Dent 26:15–20Google Scholar
- 19.Fiske CH, Subbarow Y (1925) The colorimetric determination of phosphorus. J Biol Chem 66:375–400Google Scholar
- 26.Pessan JP, Sicca CM, de Souza TS, da Silva SMB, Whitford GM, Buzalaf MAR (2006) Fluoride concentrations in dental plaque and saliva after the use of a fluoride toothpaste preceded by a calcium lactate rinse. Eur J Oral Sci 114:489–493. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0722.2006.00409.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 31.Marquis RE, Clock SA, Mota-Meira M (2003) Fluoride and organic weak acids as modulators of microbial physiology. FEMS Microbiol Rev 26:493–510. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1574-6976.2003.tb00627.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar