Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3535–3542 | Cite as

Anticaries effect of toothpaste with nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate

  • Luhana Santos Gonzales Garcia
  • Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
  • Juliano Pelim Pessan
  • Matheus dos Passos Silva
  • Francisco Nunes Souza Neto
  • Luiz Fernando Gorup
  • Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo
  • Marcelle DanelonEmail author
Original Article



To evaluate the effect of a fluoride toothpaste containing nano-sized sodium hexametaphosphate (HMPnano) on enamel demineralization on the biochemical composition and insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) in biofilm formed in situ.


This crossover double-blind study consisted of four phases (7 days each), in which 12 volunteers wore intraoral appliances containing four enamel bovine blocks. The cariogenic challenge was performed using 30% sucrose solution (6×/day). Blocks were treated 3×/day with the following toothpastes: no F/HMP/HMPnano (Placebo), conventional fluoride toothpaste, 1100 ppm F (1100F), 1100F + 0.5% micrometric HMP (1100F/HMP), and 1100F + 0.5% nano-sized HMP (1100F/HMPnano). The percentage of surface hardness loss (%SH), integrated loss of subsurface hardness (ΔKHN), and enamel calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and fluoride (F) were determined. Moreover, biofilms formed on the blocks were analyzed for F, Ca, P, and insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) concentrations. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA, followed by Student–Newman–Keuls’ test (p < 0.001).


1100F/HMPnano promoted the lowest %SH and ΔKHN among all groups (p < 0.001). The addition of HMPnano to 1100F significantly increased Ca concentrations (p < 0.001). The 1100F/HMPnano promoted lower values of EPS when compared with 1100F (~ 70%) (p < 0.001) and higher values of fluoride and calcium in the biofilms (p < 0.001).


1100F/HMPnano demonstrated a greater protective effect against enamel demineralization and on the composition of biofilm in situ when compared to 1100F toothpaste.

Clinical relevance

This toothpaste could be a viable alternative to patients at high risk of caries.


Caries Biofilm Fluoride Demineralization Nano-sized 



We thank the volunteers for their participation in the study, CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education Personnel), FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation, grant 2016/03148-7), and CNPq/PQ (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, grant 308981/2014-6) for the concession of a scholarship to the first, second, fourth, and eighth authors, respectively.


This study was supported by CAPES (Coordination of Higher Education Personnel), FAPESP (The State of São Paulo Research Foundation, grant 2016/03148-7), and CNPq/PQ (National Council for Scientific and Technological Development, grant 308981/2014-6).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors Marcelle Danelon, Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem, Juliano Pelim Pessan, and Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo hold a patent request for a product used in the study, by the National Institute of Industrial Property—INPI/SP, on October 17, 2014 under number BR 10 2014 025902 3.

Ethical approval

This study was approved by the Human Ethical Committee of São Paulo State University (UNESP), School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Brazil (Protocol: 58549716.8.0000.5420).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Luhana Santos Gonzales Garcia
    • 1
  • Alberto Carlos Botazzo Delbem
    • 1
  • Juliano Pelim Pessan
    • 1
  • Matheus dos Passos Silva
    • 1
  • Francisco Nunes Souza Neto
    • 2
  • Luiz Fernando Gorup
    • 2
  • Emerson Rodrigues de Camargo
    • 2
  • Marcelle Danelon
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.School of Dentistry, Araçatuba, Department of Pediatric Dentistry and Public HealthSão Paulo State University (UNESP)AracatubaBrazil
  2. 2.LIEC-Department of ChemistryFederal University of São Carlos (UFSCar)São CarlosBrazil

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