Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 9, pp 3517–3526 | Cite as

Cytokine levels in crevicular fluid associated with compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy

  • Fernando Oliveira CostaEmail author
  • Sheila Cavalca Cortelli
  • Tarcília Aparecida Silva
  • Amanda Almeida Costa
  • Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima
  • José Roberto Cortelli
  • Luís Otávio Miranda Cota
Original Article



To longitudinally evaluate the effects of compliance during periodontal maintenance therapy (PMT) on cytokines levels and its relation to periodontal status.

Materials and methods

Ninety-one eligible individuals were selected from a 6-year prospective study with 212 individuals in PMT. From this total, 28 regular compliers (RC) were randomly selected and matched for age and gender with 28 irregular compliers (IC). All participants were non-smokers and non-diabetic. Periodontal parameters and gingival crevicular fluid samples were collected in 5 times: T1 [prior to active periodontal therapy (APT)], T2 (after APT), T3 (2 years), T4 (4 years), and T5 (6 years). Levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-8 were quantified through ELISA.


RC presented better clinical periodontal status over time when compared to IC. A significant reduction in the levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, MMP-8, and IL-6 was observed among RC along time (from T1 to T5). Levels of IL-1 were similar among groups. By contrast, levels of IL-6 and TNF-α increased over time in IC individuals. Levels of IL-10 increased among RC and reduced among IC.


The inflammatory cytokines IL-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and MMP-8 were correlated with worse clinical parameters among IC, while IL-10 was associated with an improvement in clinical parameters among RC. These results reinforce the role of these cytokines in the pathogenesis of periodontitis, as well as their role as markers to monitoring the progression of the periodontitis.

Clinical relevance

Regular compliance during 6-year period the PMT sustained clinical and immunological benefits obtained after active periodontal therapy.


Compliance Cytokines Maintenance Periodontitis 



The authors thank Dr. Eugenio José Pereira Lages, Mrs. Elizabeth Dohler, and Mrs. Milene Aparecida Mendes da Rocha (private dental clinic, Belo Horizonte, Brazil) for their assistance with the re-calls, data collection, periodontal maintenance therapy visits, and monitoring of participants.


This study was supported by grants from the National Council of Scientific and Technological Development – CNPq, Brazil (productivity research grants #307034/2015-1, #307024/2015-6, and #402158/2016-4).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interests.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in the present study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Fernando Oliveira Costa
    • 1
    Email author
  • Sheila Cavalca Cortelli
    • 2
  • Tarcília Aparecida Silva
    • 1
  • Amanda Almeida Costa
    • 1
  • Rafael Paschoal Esteves Lima
    • 1
  • José Roberto Cortelli
    • 2
  • Luís Otávio Miranda Cota
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Dental Clinics, Oral Pathology, and Oral Surgery, School of DentistryFederal University of Minas GeraisBelo HorizonteBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Dentistry, Periodontics Research DivisionUniversity of TaubatéTaubatéBrazil

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