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A novel hydroxyapatite-binding antimicrobial peptide against oral biofilms

  • Yan Yang
  • Lingyun Xia
  • Markus Haapasalo
  • Wei Wei
  • Duo Zhang
  • Jingzhi Ma
  • Ya Shen
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

Novel synthetic antimicrobial peptides which consist of a new immunomodulatory peptide 1018 and two different modifications with hydroxyapatite-binding affinity were developed. We compared the effect(s) of these peptides against oral plaque biofilms and measured their effectiveness in killing biofilm microbes and in reducing biofilm volume.

Materials and methods

The high affinity hydroxyapatite (HA)-binding peptide 1018 (SHABP), the mild affinity HA-binding peptide 1018 (MHABP), and peptide 1018 without additional amino acid sequence (peptide 1018) were synthesized. Oral multispecies biofilms were grown anaerobically for 3 days. The biofilms were exposed to three peptides at two different concentrations (0.65 and 3.25 μmol/L) for 24, 48, and 72 h. The biofilms were also treated for 3 or 9 min with the peptides (3.25 μmol/L). The percentage of killed biofilm bacteria and biofilm volume were determined by using LIVE/DEAD viability staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Results

SHABP was superior to MHABP and peptide 1018 in its killing efficacy of the pre-formed biofilms, especially at concentration of 3.25 μmol/L (p < 0.05). SHABP performed also better than MHABP and peptide 1018 in reducing the overall biofilm volume at both concentrations (p < 0.05). During the 3 days of long-term exposure, MHABP and peptide 1080 killed more bacteria in the top half of the biofilms, compared to bottom half. SHABP killed more bacteria in the bottom half (39%) of the biofilms than in the top half (29%) at day 1 (p < 0.05), whereas more bacteria were killed in the upper layers on days 2 and 3. SHABP killed a much higher percentage of plaque biofilm bacteria when used on 3-day-old biofilms for one or three times for 3 min than MHABP or peptide 1018 at high concentration (p < 0.05).

Conclusions

The modified peptide 1018 with high HA-binding affinity had higher antimicrobial activity against biofilm microbes and reduced biofilm volume more than the other peptides tested.

Clinical relevance

Modified peptide 1018 with high hydroxyapatite-binding affinity is a promising agent for use in oral antibiofilm strategies in the future.

Keywords

Antimicrobial Binding Biofilm Hydroxyapatite Peptide 1018 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partly supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 81641035, 81700961, 81873714, and 81401524) and by Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI: 32623).

Funding

This work was partly supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC, No. 81641035, 81700961, 81873714, and 81401524) and by Canada Foundation for Innovation (CFI: 32623).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

Ethics permission was obtained from the University of British Columbia Office of Research Services, Clinical Research Ethics Board (certificate number H15-02793).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from the volunteer providing oral plaque in this study.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Stomatology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical CollegeHuazhong University of Science and TechnologyWuhanChina
  2. 2.Faculty of Dentistry, Division of Endodontics, Department of Oral Biological and Medical SciencesUniversity of British ColumbiaVancouverCanada
  3. 3.Department of Stomatology, Taihe hospitalHubei University of MedicineShiyanChina

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