Effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma treatment on dentin wetting and surface free energy for application of universal adhesives
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The study aims to evaluate the effects of non-thermal atmospheric plasma (NTAP) treatments on dentin wetting and surface free energy (SFE) and compare the effects of NTAP treatment, etch-and-rinse, and self-etch protocols for application of universal adhesives.
Materials and methods
Mid-coronal dentin of intact third molars was used to measure contact angles of distilled water, ethylene-glycol, and diiodomethane and calculate SFE following different NTAP preset treatments (feeding gas consisting of pure He, He + 1% O2, He + 1.5% O2), power input (1 or 3 W), and tip-to-surface distance (2, 4, or 8 mm). Contact angles of reference liquids and SFE of dentin following He + 1.5% O2 at 3-W and 4-mm treatment was compared to phosphoric acid etching. Contact angles of Single Bond Universal (SBU; 3M ESPE) and Clearfil Universal Bond (CUB; Kuraray Noritake) were measured following NTAP, etch-and-rinse, and self-etch protocols.
NTAP significantly reduced contact angles of reference liquids and increased dentin SFE compared to untreated dentin (p < 0.05). O2 intensified the effect of He NTAP (p < 0.05). NTAP and phosphoric acid increased dentin polarity and Lewis base surface characteristics. Phosphoric acid increased contact angles of adhesives compared to the self-etch protocol (p < 0.05). NTAP resulted in lower adhesive contact angles than phosphoric acid, the difference being statistically significant for CUB (p < 0.05). Compared to the self-etch protocol, NTAP slightly reduced CUB contact angle but not that of SBU (p > 0.05).
He NTAP with and without O2 increased dentin wetting and SFE, surpassing the effect of phosphoric acid and lowering adhesive contact angles. NTAP produced no apparent micro-morphological changes on dentin surface comparable to acid etching.
NTAP treatment of dentin prior to adhesive application increases dentin wetting and surface free energy facilitating better adhesive distribution on dentin surface compared to phosphoric acid etching and similar to the “self-etch” application protocol.
KeywordsContact angle Dentin Non-thermal atmospheric plasma Surface free energy Universal adhesive Wetting
This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia (grant numbers III41011, ON171037, and ON172007). The authors wish to thank 3M ESPE and Kuraray Noritake for a generous donation of materials used in this study. We would like to thank Dr. Djordje Antonijević for his assistance with SFE calculation.
The work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, and Technological Development, Republic of Serbia (grant numbers III41011, ON171037, and ON172007).
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Human and Animal Rights
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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