The antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, and differentiation potential of double antibiotic intracanal medicaments loaded into hydrogel system
This study evaluated the antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, and mineralization potential of methylcellulose hydrogels loaded with low concentrations of double antibiotic pastes (DAP).
Materials and methods
The direct and residual antibacterial effects of 1, 5, and 10 mg/mL of DAP loaded into hydrogels as well as calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were tested against single-species biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and dual-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecalis and Prevotella intermedia). The effects of DAP hydrogels on proliferation and mineralization of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) were tested using MTT assays, alkaline phosphate activity (ALP), and alizarin red staining. Fisher’s exact tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analyses (α = 0.05).
All tested concentrations of DAP hydrogels as well as Ca(OH)2 demonstrated significant direct antibacterial effects against single- and dual-species biofilms. However, only 5 and 10 mg/mL of DAP hydrogels exhibited significant residual antibacterial effects against both types of tested biofilms. Only 1 mg/mL of DAP hydrogels did not have significant negative effects on DPSC viability, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation. However, 5 and 10 mg/mL of DAP hydrogels caused significant negative effects on cytotoxicity and mineralization nodule formation of DPSC.
Hydrogels containing 1 mg/mL DAP offered significant direct antibacterial effects against single- and dual-species biofilms without causing significant negative effects on viability, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation of DPSC.
The methylcellulose-based hydrogel proposed in this study can be used clinically as a biocompatible system to deliver controlled low concentrations of DAP.
KeywordsAntimicrobials Cytotoxicity Double antibiotic paste Hydrogels Mineralization
This study was supported by Indiana University School of Dentistry
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human teeth were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
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