Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 1051–1059 | Cite as

The antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, and differentiation potential of double antibiotic intracanal medicaments loaded into hydrogel system

  • Patrick W. McIntyre
  • Jennifer L. Wu
  • Rasika Kolte
  • Ru Zhang
  • Richard L. Gregory
  • Angela Bruzzaniti
  • Ghaeth H. YassenEmail author
Original Article



This study evaluated the antimicrobial properties, cytotoxicity, and mineralization potential of methylcellulose hydrogels loaded with low concentrations of double antibiotic pastes (DAP).

Materials and methods

The direct and residual antibacterial effects of 1, 5, and 10 mg/mL of DAP loaded into hydrogels as well as calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) were tested against single-species biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and dual-species biofilms (Enterococcus faecalis and Prevotella intermedia). The effects of DAP hydrogels on proliferation and mineralization of dental pulp stem cells (DPSC) were tested using MTT assays, alkaline phosphate activity (ALP), and alizarin red staining. Fisher’s exact tests, Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and one-way ANOVA were used for statistical analyses (α = 0.05).


All tested concentrations of DAP hydrogels as well as Ca(OH)2 demonstrated significant direct antibacterial effects against single- and dual-species biofilms. However, only 5 and 10 mg/mL of DAP hydrogels exhibited significant residual antibacterial effects against both types of tested biofilms. Only 1 mg/mL of DAP hydrogels did not have significant negative effects on DPSC viability, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation. However, 5 and 10 mg/mL of DAP hydrogels caused significant negative effects on cytotoxicity and mineralization nodule formation of DPSC.


Hydrogels containing 1 mg/mL DAP offered significant direct antibacterial effects against single- and dual-species biofilms without causing significant negative effects on viability, ALP activity, and mineralization nodule formation of DPSC.

Clinical relevance

The methylcellulose-based hydrogel proposed in this study can be used clinically as a biocompatible system to deliver controlled low concentrations of DAP.


Antimicrobials Cytotoxicity Double antibiotic paste Hydrogels Mineralization 



This study was supported by Indiana University School of Dentistry

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human teeth were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Patrick W. McIntyre
    • 1
  • Jennifer L. Wu
    • 1
  • Rasika Kolte
    • 1
  • Ru Zhang
    • 1
    • 2
  • Richard L. Gregory
    • 1
  • Angela Bruzzaniti
    • 1
  • Ghaeth H. Yassen
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Biomedical and Applied SciencesIndiana University School of DentistryIndianapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Endodontics, Beijing Stomatological HospitalCapital Medical UniversityBeijingChina
  3. 3.Department of EndodonticsCase School of Dental MedicineClevelandUSA

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