Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 3, pp 1143–1151 | Cite as

Iodonium salt incorporation in dental adhesives and its relation with degree of conversion, ultimate tensile strength, cell viability, and oxidative stress

  • Camila Perelló Ferrúa
  • Fernanda Barbosa Leal
  • Marta de Oliveira Gazal
  • Gabriele Cordenonzi Ghisleni
  • Rodrigo Varella de Carvalho
  • Flávio Fernando Demarco
  • Fabrício Aulo Ogliari
  • Fernanda NedelEmail author
Original Article



The aim of this study was to evaluate the degree of conversion, ultimate tensile strength, cell viability, and oxidative stress of two different ternary initiation systems, using two photoinitiation polymerization times.


The groups investigated were camphorquinone (CQ); CQ and diphenyleneiodonium hexafluorophosphate (DPI); CQ and ethyl 4-dimethylamine benzoate (EDAB); and CQ, EDAB, and DPI, with EDAB in high and low concentration. To assess the degree of conversion (DC) and the ultimate tensile strength (UTS), a real-time Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and a universal test machine Emic DL-500 were used, respectively. Cell viability and oxidative stress were evaluated by MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total sulfhydryl (SH) content, and thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS) formation assays.


Slight lower cell viability was shown when DPI was associated with high concentrations of EDAB; this reduction seemed to be attenuated when lower concentrations of EDAB were used. When EDAB and DPI were associated, no oxidative damage was shown. The degree of conversion was increased in the ternary systems (CQ + EDAB lower concentration + DPI) group, which did not affect the UTS, cytotoxicity, and oxidative stress parameters. The polymerization time did not affect cell viability, total SH, and TBARS; however, a slight increase was shown in SOD levels.

Clinical relevance

Our study emphasizes the relevance of incorporating the third element—iodonium salt—in a binary adhesive systems composed exclusively of CQ and EDAB.


Diphenyleneiodonium Ultimate tensile strength Degree of conversion Cell viability Oxidative stress Polymerization 



The work was supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico – CNPq (478777/2013-2) in Brazil.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Camila Perelló Ferrúa
    • 1
    • 2
  • Fernanda Barbosa Leal
    • 1
  • Marta de Oliveira Gazal
    • 2
  • Gabriele Cordenonzi Ghisleni
    • 2
  • Rodrigo Varella de Carvalho
    • 3
  • Flávio Fernando Demarco
    • 1
  • Fabrício Aulo Ogliari
    • 1
    • 4
  • Fernanda Nedel
    • 2
    Email author
  1. 1.Post-Graduate Program in DentistryFederal University of PelotasPelotasBrazil
  2. 2.Post-Graduate Program in Health and BehaviorCatholic University of PelotasPelotasBrazil
  3. 3.Meridional Faculty of Passo FundoPasso FundoBrazil
  4. 4.Post-Graduate Program in Materials Science and EngineeringFederal University of PelotasPelotasBrazil

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