Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 445–457 | Cite as

Properties of calcium silicate-monobasic calcium phosphate materials for endodontics containing tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide

  • Fausto Zamparini
  • Francesco Siboni
  • Carlo Prati
  • Paola Taddei
  • Maria Giovanna GandolfiEmail author
Original Article



The aim of the study was to evaluate chemical-physical properties and apatite-forming ability of three premixed calcium silicate materials containing monobasic calcium phosphate (CaH4P2O8) bioceramic, tantalum pentoxide and zirconium oxide, recently marketed for endodontics (TotalFill BC-Sealer, BC-RRM-Paste, BC-RRM-Putty).

Materials and methods

Microchemical and micromorphological analyses, radiopacity, initial and final setting times, calcium release and alkalising activity were tested. The nucleation of calcium phosphates (CaPs) and/or apatite after 28 days ageing was evaluated by ESEM-EDX and micro-Raman spectroscopy.


BC-Sealer and BC-RRM-Paste showed similar initial (23 h), prolonged final (52 h) setting times and good radiopacity (> 7 mm Al); BC-RRM-Putty showed fast initial (2 h) and final setting times (27 h) and excellent radiopacity (> 9 mm Al). All materials induced a marked alkalisation (pH 11–12) up to 28 days and showed the release of calcium ions throughout the entire test period (cumulative calcium release 641–806 ppm). After 28 days ageing, a well-distributed mineral layer was present on all samples surface; EDX demonstrated relevant calcium and phosphorous peaks. B-type carbonated apatite and calcite deposits were identified by micro-Raman spectroscopy on all the 28-day-aged samples; the deposit thickness was higher on BC-RRM-Paste and BC-RRM-Putty, in agreement with calcium release data.


These materials met the required chemical and physical standards and released biologically relevant ions. The CaSi-CaH4P2O8 system present in the materials provided Ca and OH ions release with marked abilities to nucleate a layer of B-type carbonated apatite favoured/accelerated by the bioceramic presence.

Clinical relevance

The ability to nucleate apatite may lead many clinical advantages: In orthograde endodontics, it may improve the sealing ability by the deposition of CaPs at the material-root dentine interface, and in endodontic surgery, it could promote bone and periodontal tissue regeneration. As premixed materials, their application in endodontics may result easier in several complex endodontic situations (apicoectomy, root perforation, presence of wide/wet apices).


TotalFill BC-Sealer TotalFill BC-RRM-Paste TotalFill BC-RRM-Putty Calcium silicate Monobasic calcium phosphate Bioceramics 



The study has been supported with the academic funds of Prof Gandolfi M.G. and Prof Taddei P.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not concern any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratory of Biomaterials and Oral Pathology, Dental School, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly
  2. 2.Biochemistry Unit, Department of Biomedical and Neuromotor SciencesUniversity of BolognaBolognaItaly

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