Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 391–397 | Cite as

Recovery time after oral and maxillofacial ambulatory surgery with dexmedetomidine: an observational study

  • Belen HernandoEmail author
  • Antonio Martinez-Simon
  • Elena Cacho-Asenjo
  • Iñaki F. Troconiz
  • Cristina Honorato-Cia
  • Alfredo Panadero
  • Luis L. Naval
  • Jorge M. Nuñez-Cordoba
Original Article



To evaluate the relationship between pharmacokinetic descriptors of dexmedetomidine (predicted area under the curve during the procedure, predicted plasma level at the end of the procedure, and duration of procedure) and sedation depth (proportion of time with bispectral index < 85 during the procedure) with recovery time after ambulatory procedures.

Materials and methods

Clinical observational study of patients undergoing oral and maxillofacial ambulatory surgery with dexmedetomidine as sole sedative agent. Patients received a loading dose of dexmedetomidine (0.25–1 μg kg−1) followed by a maintenance infusion (0.2–1.4 μg kg−1 h−1) to keep a bispectral index < 85 until 5 min before the end of the procedure, and were transferred to a post-anesthesia care unit until criteria for discharge were met.


Data from 75 patients was analyzed. Sedation depth was directly associated with recovery time (Pearson correlation coefficient [r] = 0.26; p = 0.024). Around 7% of the variation in recovery time was explained by the proportion of time with bispectral index < 85. No association with procedure duration (r = 0.01; p = 0.9), predicted area under the curve (r = 0.1; p = 0.4), or predicted plasma level of dexmedetomidine at the end of the procedure (r = 0.12; p = 0.3) with recovery time was observed.


Sedation depth with dexmedetomidine could play a role in increasing recovery time after oral and maxillofacial ambulatory surgery. In our study, the pharmacokinetic descriptors of dexmedetomidine did not seem to influence recovery time.

Clinical relevance

Sedation depth with dexmedetomidine could play a role in increasing recovery time after ambulatory procedures.


Dexmedetomidine Sedation Bispectral index Recovery time Oral and maxillofacial ambulatory surgery 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

784_2018_2447_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (410 kb)
Supplementary figure 1 (PDF 410 kb)
784_2018_2447_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (443 kb)
Supplementary figure 2 (PDF 443 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Belen Hernando
    • 1
    Email author
  • Antonio Martinez-Simon
    • 1
  • Elena Cacho-Asenjo
    • 1
  • Iñaki F. Troconiz
    • 2
  • Cristina Honorato-Cia
    • 1
  • Alfredo Panadero
    • 1
  • Luis L. Naval
    • 3
  • Jorge M. Nuñez-Cordoba
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of Anesthesia, Perioperative Medicine and Critical CareUniversity of Navarra ClinicPamplonaSpain
  2. 2.Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology, Department of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Technology, School of Pharmacy and NutritionUniversity of NavarraPamplonaSpain
  3. 3.Department of Oral and Maxillofacial SurgeryUniversity of Navarra ClinicPamplonaSpain
  4. 4.Research Support Service, Central Clinical Trials UnitUniversity of Navarra ClinicPamplonaSpain

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