Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 293–301 | Cite as

Difference assessment of composite resins and sound tooth applicable in the resin-imbedded tooth for resin repair using fluorescence, microhardness, DIAGNOdent, and X-ray image

  • Tae-sung Jeong
  • Jeong-Kil Park
  • Ching-Chang Ko
  • Franklin Garcia-Godoy
  • Yong Hoon KwonEmail author
Original Article



Visual differentiation of resin and tooth in a tooth cavity is not simple due to their highly similar shade. The purpose of the present study was to find any noninvasive method which can effectively differentiate resin from sound tooth in a resin-imbedded tooth for resin repair.

Materials and methods

For the study, various resin products were imbedded into the cavity of sound tooth. By applying laser of different wavelengths, autofluorescence (AF) of sound tooth and resin products were obtained. Microhardness, X-ray radiograph, and DIAGNOdent were tested for each tooth, resin product, and resin-imbedded tooth.


For the AF spectra obtained using the 405-nm wavelength, sound tooth has emission peak at 440–470 nm and near 490 nm. Sound tooth has several times higher microhardness than resin products regardless of position in tooth subsurface. Due to the difference of radiopaque fillers’ composition and concentration, resin products have different brightness in the X-ray radiograph. DIAGNOdent readings for tooth and resin products were inconsistently different, and the difference of obtained values was slightly not to be applicable for the differentiation.


Among the tested methods, with noninvasive treatment, AF spectrum by the 405-nm wavelength showed the apparent difference between resin and tooth.

Clinical significance

For the resin repair in a resin-imbedded tooth cavity, AF spectrum produced by 405-nm wavelength could be a useful method in tracing the resin-tooth boundary if combined with conventional X-ray radiography.


Composite resin Tooth Fluorescence Microhardness DIAGNOdent X-ray image 


Funding information

This study was supported by Dental Research Grant (PNUDH-DRI 2015-04), Pusan National University Dental Hospital, Yangsan, Korea.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


  1. 1.
    Price RB, Ferracane JL, Shortall AC (2015) Light-curing units: a review of what we need to know. J Dent Res 94:1179–1186. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Roberts HW, Charlton DG (2009) The release of mercury from amalgam restorations and its health effects: a review. Oper Dent 34:605–614. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ferracane JL (2011) Resin composite-state of the art. Dent Mater 27:29–38. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Cramer NB, Stansbury JW, Bowman CN (2011) Recent advances and developments in composite dental restorative materials. J Dent Res 90:402–416. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Sabatini C, Campillo M, Aref J (2012) Color stability of ten resin-based restorative materials. J Esthet Restor Dent 24:185–199. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Martins GC, Meier MM, Loguercio AD, Reis A, Gomes JC, Gomes OM (2014) Effects of adding barium-borosilicate glass to a simplified etch-and-rinse adhesive on radiopacity and selected properties. J Adhes Dent 16:107–114. Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Amirouche-Korichi A, Mouzali M, Watts DC (2009) Effects of monomer ratios and highly radiopaque fillers on degree of conversion and shrinkage-strain of dental resin composites. Dent Mater 25:1411–1418. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Furtos G, Baldea B, Silaghi-Dumitrescu L, Moldovan M, Prejmerean C, Nica L (2013) Influence of inorganic filler content on the radiopacity of dental resin cements. Dent Mater J 31:266–272. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Ten Cate AR (1998) Oral histology: development, structure, and function. Mosby, St. Louis, p 150Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Shakibaie F, Walsh LJ (2016) Violet and blue light-induced green fluorescence emissions from dental caries. Aust Dent J 61:464–468. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Chen Q, Zhu H, Xu Y, Lin B, Chen H (2015) Discrimination of dental caries using colorimetric characteristics of fluorescence spectrum. Caries Res 49:401–407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang L, Kim AS, Ridge JS, Nelson LY, Berg JH, Seibel EJ (2013) Trimodal detection of early childhood caries using laser light scanning and fluorescence spectroscopy: clinical prototype. J Biomed Opt 18:111412. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Son SA, Jung KH, Ko CC, Kwon YH (2016) Spectral characteristics of caries-related autofluorescence spectra and their use for diagnosis of caries stage. J Biomed Opt 21:15001. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Liu Y, Yao X, Liu YW, Wang Y (2014) A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis of carious dentin from transparent zone to normal zone. Caries Res 48:320–329. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Tiznado-Orozco GE, García-García R, Reyes-Gasga J (2009) Structural and thermal behaviour of carious and sound powders of human tooth enamel and dentine. J Phys D Appl Phys 42:235408CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Stansbury JW, Dickens SH (2001) Determination of double bond conversion in dental resins by near infrared spectroscopy. Dent Mater 17:71–79. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Lung CY, Sarfraz Z, Habib A, Khan AS, Matinlinna JP (2016) Effect of silanization of hydroxyapatite fillers on physical and mechanical properties of a bis-GMA based resin composite. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater 54:283–294. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Moncada G, Martin J, Fernández E, Hempel MC, Mjör IA, Gordan VV (2009) Sealing, refurbishment and repair of class I and class II defective restorations: a three-year clinical trial. J Am Dent Assoc 140:425–432. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Maneenut C, Sakoolnamarka R, Tyas MJ (2011) The repair potential of resin composite materials. Dent Mater 27:e20–e27. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Staxrud F, Dahl JE (2011) Role of bonding agents in the repair of composite resin restorations. Eur J Oral Sci 119:316–322. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Zhang L, Nelson LY, Seibel EJ (2011) Red-shifted fluorescence of sound dental hard tissue. J Biomed Opt 16:071411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Sundström F, Fredriksson K, Montán S, Hafström-Björkman U, Ström J (1985) Laser-induced fluorescence from sound and carious tooth substance: spectroscopic studies. Swed Dent J 9:71–80Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Buchalla W, Lennon AM, Attin T (2004) Comparative fluorescence spectroscopy of root caries lesions. Eur J Oral Sci 112(6):490–496. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Lee YK (2015) Fluorescence properties of human teeth and dental calculus for clinical applications. J Biomed Opt 20:040901. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Meller C, Klein C (2015) Fluorescence of composite resins: a comparison among properties of commercial shades. Dent Mater J 34:754–765. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    da Silva T, de Oliveira H, Severino D, Balducci I, Huhtala M, Gonçalves S (2014) Direct spectrometry: a new alternative for measuring the fluorescence of composite resins and dental tissues. Oper Dent 39:407–415. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Park MY, Lee YK, Lim BS (2007) Influence of fluorescent whitening agent on the fluorescent emission of resin composites. Dent Mater 23:731–735. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Rubo MH, el-Mowafy O (1998) Radiopacity of dual-cured and chemical-cured resin-based cements. Int J Prosthodont 11:70–74Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Hara AT, Serra MC, Haiter-Neto F, Rodrigues AL Jr (2001) Radiopacity of esthetic restorative materials compared with human tooth structure. Am J Dent 14:383–386Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Turgut MD, Attar N, Onen A (2003) Radiopacity of direct esthetic restorative materials. Oper Dent 28:508–514Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Fonseca RB, Branco CA, Soares PV, Correr-Sobrinho L, Haiter-Neto F, Fernandes-Neto AJ, Soares CJ (2006) Radiodensity of base, liner and luting dental materials. Clin Oral Investig 10:114–118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Iwami Y, Yamamoto H, Hayashi M, Ebisu S (2011) Relationship between laser fluorescence and bacterial invasion in arrested dentinal carious lesions. Lasers Med Sci 26:439–444. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Astvaldsdóttir A, Tranæus S, Karlsson L, Peter Holbrook W (2010) DIAGNOdent measurements of cultures of selected oral bacteria and demineralized enamel. Acta Odontol Scand 68:148–153. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Sainsbury AL, Bird PS, Walsh LJ (2009) DIAGNOdent laser fluorescence assessment of endodontic infection. J Endod 35:1404–1407. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Pediatric Dentistry, School of DentistryPusan National UniversityYangsanSouth Korea
  2. 2.Department of Conservative Dentistry, School of DentistryPusan National UniversityYangsanSouth Korea
  3. 3.Department of Orthodontics, School of DentistryUniversity of North CarolinaChapel HillUSA
  4. 4.Department of Bioscience ResearchUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center, College of DentistryMemphisUSA
  5. 5.Department of Dental Materials, School of DentistryPusan National UniversityYangsanSouth Korea

Personalised recommendations