Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 209–220 | Cite as

Fluoride varnish versus glutaraldehyde for hypersensitive teeth: a randomized controlled trial, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

  • Gowri SivaramakrishnanEmail author
  • Kannan Sridharan
Original Article



Reports indicate Gluma and Duraphat are commonly used in-office agents to treat hypersensitive teeth. Considering this, the aim of this paper is to compare Gluma and Duraphat using a randomized controlled trial, meta-analysis collating evidences from previous studies and trial sequential analysis.

Materials and methods

Thirty-eight participants were randomized. Hypersensitivity and visual analog scale (VAS) scores were recorded at baseline, 5 min and 7 days. Oral health-related quality of life (OHIP) questionnaire was administered at baseline and 7 days. Statistical analysis was performed to identify significant differences between the variables. For the meta-analysis, electronic data bases were searched and eligible data was extracted and analysed using RevMan 5.0. Trial sequential analysis was performed using O’Brien-Fleming boundary approach for the primary outcome.


Both agents caused significant reduction in hypersensitivity and VAS score at 5 min and 7 days in the randomized trial with no superiority. The quality of life significantly improved in patients treated with both the agents. Four studies including the present trial in meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis indicated that Gluma produced significant reduction in VAS scores at 7 days.


Gluma produces significant reduction in hypersensitivity at 7 days post treatment compared with Duraphat. There is definite lack of evidence on the long-term effect of these agents.

Clinical relevance

This paper provides strong evidence on the use of Gluma for hypersensitive teeth. This also is a way forward to future research on long-term effects, adverse effects and cost-effectiveness studies.


Sensitive teeth Pain Pain rating scale Quality of life 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

784_2018_2428_MOESM1_ESM.doc (62 kb)
ESM 1 (DOC 62.5 kb)
784_2018_2428_MOESM2_ESM.doc (38 kb)
ESM 2 (DOC 37.5 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Oral Health, College of Medicine, Nursing and Health SciencesFiji National UniversitySuvaFiji
  2. 2.Department of Pharmacology and TherapeuticsArabian Gulf UniversityManamaBahrain

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