Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 123–131 | Cite as

Association between odontogenic conditions and maxillary sinus mucosal thickening: a retrospective CBCT study

  • Umut AksoyEmail author
  • Kaan Orhan
Original Article



This study aimed to assess the maxillary sinus mucosal thickening and to associate them with odontogenic conditions using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) images.

Materials and methods

CBCT images of 294 patients (143 female, 151 males; age range 18–78 years) with 588 maxillary sinuses were evaluated retrospectively. The anatomic relationship between maxillary sinuses and teeth was determined and classified. The presence of root canal fillings and the periapical lesions of these teeth was also recorded. Sinus mucosal thickenings were classified as grade 1 (normal) (< 2 mm), grade 2 (moderate) (2–10 mm), and grade 3 (severe) (> 10 mm). Alveolar bone loss was measured on all maxillary premolar/M teeth.


More than 2-mm mucosal thickening (grade 2 and grade 3) in either one or both maxillary sinuses was found in 172 (58.5%) of the patients. The prevalence of mucosal thickening (> 2 mm) for maxillary sinuses with and without any periapical lesions was 42.1 and 53.6%, respectively (p < 0.05). The prevalence of mucosal thickening increased in patients with periodontal alveolar bone loss (p < 0.05). There was a significant correlation between mucosal thickening with age, gender and missing teeth (p < 0.05).


Multiple conditions, including periapical infection, root canal treatment, and close relationship maxillary teeth and sinus, may have a precursor effect on the occurrence of mucosal thickening in the maxillary sinus. Periodontal status and its role as a risk factor in triggering maxillary sinus infections should be also considered by not only dental professionals but also the medical professionals to plan for the treatment of maxillary sinus lesions.

Clinical relevance

Maxillary sinuses are significantly influenced by various odontogenic conditions, including periodontal bone loss, periapical lesions, and missing teeth, which may result in thickening of the maxillary sinus mucosa.


Odontogenic conditions Maxillary sinus mucosal thickening CBCT 



The authors would like to thank Dr. Seçil Aksoy for her help in calibration process of the study.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the local ethical committee of the Near East University (YDU/2017/47-421).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endodontics, Faculty of DentistryNear East UniversityMersin 10Turkey
  2. 2.Department of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of DentistryAnkara UniversityAnkaraTurkey

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