Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 23, Issue 1, pp 43–52 | Cite as

Microstructure and chemical analysis of four calcium silicate-based cements in different environmental conditions

  • K. Ashofteh Yazdi
  • Sh. Ghabraei
  • B. Bolhari
  • M. Kafili
  • N. MerajiEmail author
  • M. H. NekoofarEmail author
  • P. M. H. Dummer
Original Article



The objective of this study was to analyze the microstructure and crystalline structures of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, CEM Cement, and Retro MTA when exposed to phosphate-buffered saline, butyric acid, and blood.

Methods and materials

Mixed samples of ProRoot MTA, Biodentine, CEM Cement, and Retro MTA were exposed to either phosphate-buffered saline, butyric acid, or blood. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopic (EDX) evaluations were conducted of specimens. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis was also performed for both hydrated and powder forms of evaluated calcium silicate cements.


The peak of tricalcium silicate and dicalcium silicate detected in all hydrated cements was smaller than that seen in their unhydrated powders. The peak of calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) in blood- and acid-exposed ProRoot MTA, CEM Cement, and Retro MTA specimens were smaller than that of specimens exposed to PBS. The peak of Ca(OH)2 seen in Biodentine specimens exposed to blood was similar to that of PBS-exposed specimens. On the other hand, those exposed to acid exhibited smaller peaks of Ca(OH)2.


Exposure to blood or acidic pH decreased Ca(OH)2 crystalline formation in ProRoot MTA, CEM Cement and Retro MTA. However, a decrease in Ca(OH)2 was only seen when Biodentine exposed to acid.

Clinical relevance

The formation of Ca(OH)2 which influences the biological properties of calcium silicate cements was impaired by blood and acid exposures in ProRoot MTA, CEM Cement, and Retro MTA; however, in the case of Biodentine, only exposure to acid had this detrimental effect.


Biodentine Calcium silicate cement CEM cement EDX MTA SEM XRD 


Funding information

The work was supported by Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran (grant no. 27183).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

784_2018_2394_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (158 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 158 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Endodontics, School of DentistryTehran University of Medical SciencesTehranIran
  2. 2.Department of Endodontics, School of DentistryTabriz University of Medical SciencesTabrizIran
  3. 3.School of Dentistry, College of Biomedical and Life SciencesCardiff UniversityCardiffUK

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