Impacted and transmigrated mandibular canines: an analysis of 3D radiographic imaging data
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Impacted and transmigrated mandibular canines differ greatly in incidence, etiopathology, associated anomalies, and treatment prospects, when compared to their maxillary counterparts. The aim of this study was to provide a detailed analysis of 3D radiographic imaging data of impacted mandibular canines.
Materials and methods
In a retrospective cross-sectional study, CT/CBCT data of 88 patients with a total of 94 impacted mandibular canines were analysed. Evaluated parameters included location, morphology, neighbouring structures, associated anomalies, the influence of those factors on mandibular canine transmigration, as well as applied treatment.
Transmigration was found to occur in 40.4% of impacted mandibular canines. Transmigrated canines were located significantly more basally and horizontally angulated. Further, transmigration was significantly associated with a lack of contact to adjacent teeth and the canine’s apex not contacting the mandibular cortical bone. The overall incidence of root resorptions of adjacent teeth related to impacted mandibular canines was 7.3% and was more likely, if the canine was lingually impacted. While about half of the non-transmigrated impacted canines were orthodontically aligned, half of the transmigrated canines were surgically removed. Monitoring was the second most applied treatment strategy for both groups, and no canines were autotransplantated.
Root resorption of adjacent teeth and transmigration are commonly occurring phenomena related to impacted mandibular canines.
Treatment often entails the surgical removal of the canine—especially in cases of transmigration. The findings emphasise the importance of early diagnosis and CT/CBCT imaging for further diagnostics and future research of impacted mandibular canines.
KeywordsMandibular canine Impaction Root resorption Transmigration CT CBCT 3D imaging
The work was supported by the Divisions of Oral Surgery, Orthodontics, Radiology, and Dental Student Training and Patient Care, School of Dentistry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria, as well as the Department of Periodontology, Faculty of Odontology, University of Malmö, Malmö, Sweden.
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
Michael H. Bertl declares that he has no conflict of interest. Clemens Frey declares that he has no conflict of interest. Kristina Bertl declares that she has no conflict of interest. Katharina Giannis declares that she has no conflict of interest. André Gahleitner declares that he has no conflict of interest. Georg D. Strbac declares that he has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
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