Advertisement

Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 22, Issue 2, pp 583–596 | Cite as

Can oral ADS activity or arginine levels be a caries risk indicator? A systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed Bijle
  • Cynthia Kar Yung Yiu
  • Manikandan Ekambaram
Review

Abstract

Objectives

The objective of this study was to evaluate the association between salivary and plaque arginine levels/ADS activities with dental caries.

Materials and methods

A systematic search was performed as per PRISMA statement using PubMed, Scopus, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science. Published studies that investigated adults and children (P) with caries-active status (E) and caries-free status (C), whereby arginine levels/ADS activity (O) was measured in saliva/plaque to analyze exposure-outcome association compared to the control group were deemed eligible for inclusion. Quality assessment was performed using combined Newcastle-Ottawa Scale and Modified RTI Item Bank scale. Meta-analysis was performed for effect size, precision estimation, and subgroup effects analysis.

Results

Of 233 records identified, seven (κ = 1.00) were included for qualitative synthesis (systematic review) and four for quantitative synthesis (meta-analysis). No specific bias could be identified in five studies assessed as per the Modified RTI Item Bank scale. Two studies received lower scores on the Newcastle Ottawa scale. Plaque ADS activity in adults (effect size = 0.93, p = 0.008), salivary ADS activity in adults and children (effect size = 0.85, p < 0.001), and salivary ADS activity in adults (effect size = 0.87, p < 0.001) identified a statistically significant effect size. Subgroup analysis demonstrated non-significant variance (Q value = 0.042, p = 0.838) between saliva and plaque ADS activities of adults.

Conclusions

The results of this review suggest the salivary and plaque ADS activities appear to be promising caries risk indicators for adults, while results remain inconclusive in children.

Clinical relevance

Measuring ADS activities (saliva or plaque) can be a potential caries risk indicator in adults. The protocol was registered on PROSPERO database: CRD42017060701.

Keywords

Arginine Arginine deiminase system Dental caries Plaque Saliva 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors of this review thank Samantha Kar Yan Li (Statistician, Faculty of Dentistry, The University of Hong Kong) for her support to perform meta-analysis. We gratefully acknowledge and express gratitude towards her kind gesture.

Author’s contribution

M. N. A. B.: Contributed to the conduct of the literature search, data extraction, qualitative analysis, and meta-analysis; writing all the drafts of the manuscript; and critically reading and approving the final manuscript.

C. K. Y. Y.: Co-contributed to the conduct of the literature search, data extraction, and qualitative analysis; writing of second and final draft of the manuscript; and critically reading and approving the final manuscript.

M. E.: Co-contributed to the conduct of literature search, data extraction, and qualitative analysis; writing of second and final draft of the manuscript; and critically reading and approving the final manuscript.

Funding

The systematic review and meta-analysis was supported by HKU seed fund for basic research 201611159314. The funders have no role in this systematic review and meta-analysis.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflicts of interests

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

784_2017_2322_MOESM1_ESM.docx (27 kb)
Supplemental File S1 (DOCX 27 kb).
784_2017_2322_MOESM2_ESM.docx (30 kb)
Supplemental File S2 (DOCX 29 kb).

References

  1. 1.
    Petersen PE, Bourgeois D, Ogawa H, Estupinan-Day S, Ndiaye C (2005) The global burden of oral diseases and risks to oral health. Bull World Health Organ 83(9):661–669 /S0042-96862005000900011 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Petersen PE (2009) Global policy for improvement of oral health in the 21st century—implications to oral health research of World Health Assembly 2007, World Health Organization. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 37(1):1–8.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0528.2008.00448.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Mejàre I, Axelsson S, Dahlén G, Espelid I, Norlund A, Tranæus S, Twetman S (2013) Caries risk assessment. A systematic review. Acta Odontol Scand 72(2):1–11.  https://doi.org/10.3109/00016357.2013.822548 Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Bowen WH (2016) Dental caries ??? Not just holes in teeth! A perspective. Mol Oral Microbiol 31(3):228–233.  https://doi.org/10.1111/omi.12132 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Schwendicke F, Frencken JE, Bjørndal L, Maltz M, Manton DJ, Ricketts D, van Landuyt K, Banerjee A, Campus G, Doméjean S, Fontana M, Leal S, Lo E, Machiulskiene V, Schulte A, Splieth C, Zandona AF, Innes NPT (2016) Managing carious lesions: consensus recommendations on terminology. Adv Dent Res 28(2):58–67.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034516639271 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Hajishengallis E, Parsaei Y, Klein MI, Koo H (2016) Advances in the microbial etiology and pathogenesis of early childhood caries. Mol Oral Microbiol 32:1–11Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Burne RA, Marquis RE (2000) Alkali production by oral bacteria and protection against dental caries. FEMS Microbiol Lett 193(1):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0378-1097(00)00438-9 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Vranic L, Granic P, Rajic Z (1991) Basic amino acid in the pathogenesis of caries. Acta Stomatol Croat 25(2):71–76PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Jenkins GN (1972) Current concepts concerning the development of dental caries. Int Dent J 22(3):350–361PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Van Wuyckhuyse BC, Perinpanayagam HE, Bevacqua D, Raubertas RF, Billings RJ, Bowen WH, Tabak LA (1995) Association of free arginine and lysine concentrations in human parotid saliva with caries experience. J Dent Res 74(2):686–690.  https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345950740021001
  11. 11.
    Gordan VV, Garvan CW, Ottenga ME, Schulte R, Harris PA, McEdward D, Magnusson I (2010) Could alkali production be considered an approach for caries control. Caries Res 44(6):547–554.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000321139 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Nascimento MM, Liu Y, Kalra R, Perry S, Adewumi A, Xu X, Primosch RE, Burne RA (2013) Oral arginine metabolism may decrease the risk for dental caries in children. J Dent Res 92(7):604–608.  https://doi.org/10.1177/0022034513487907 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nascimento MM, Gordan VV, Garvan CW, Browngardt CM, Burne RA (2009) Correlations of oral bacterial arginine and urea catabolism with caries experience. Oral Microbiol Immunol 24(2):89–95.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-302X.2008.00477.x CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Moncada G, Maureira J, Neira M, Reyes E, Oliveira Junior OB, Faleiros S, Palma P, Corsini G, Ugalde C, Gordan VV, Yevenes I (2015) Salivary urease and ADS enzymatic activity as endogenous protection against dental caries in children. J Clin Pediatr Dent 39(4):358–363.  https://doi.org/10.17796/1053-4628-39.4.358 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Reyes E, Martin J, Moncada G, Neira M, Palma P, Gordan V, Oyarzo JF, Yevenes I (2014) Caries-free subjects have high levels of urease and arginine deiminase activity. J Appl Oral Sci 22(3):235–240.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-775720130591
  16. 16.
    Liberati A, Altman DG, Tetzlaff J, Mulrow C, Gøtzsche PC, Ioannidis JPA, Clarke M, Devereaux PJ, Kleijnen J, Moher D (2009) The PRISMA statement for reporting systematic reviews and meta-analyses of studies that evaluate health care interventions: explanation and elaboration. J Clin Epidemiol 62(10):e1–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclinepi.2009.06.006 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Moher D, Liberati A, Tetzlaff J, Altman DG, The PRISMA Group (2009) Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement (reprinted from annals of internal medicine). Phys Ther 89(7):873–880.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097 PubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Maia LC, Antonio AG (2012) Systematic reviews in dental research. A guideline. J Clin Pediatr Dent 37(2):117–124.  https://doi.org/10.17796/jcpd.37.2.h606137vj3826v61 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zeng X, Zhang Y, Kwong JS, Zhang C, Li S, Sun F, Niu Y, Du L (2015) The methodological quality assessment tools for preclinical and clinical studies, systematic review and meta-analysis, and clinical practice guideline: a systematic review. J Evid Based Med 8(1):2–10.  https://doi.org/10.1111/jebm.12141
  20. 20.
    Nakagawa S, Noble DW, Senior AM, Lagisz M (2017) Meta-evaluation of meta-analysis: ten appraisal questions for biologists. BMC Biol 15(1):18.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12915-017-0357-7 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (2009) Effect sizes based on means. In: Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (eds) Introduction to meta-analysis, 1st edn. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., UK, pp 21–32.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470743386.ch4 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (2009) Fixed-effects versus random-effects models. In: Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (eds) Introduction to meta-analysis, 1st edn. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., UK, pp 78–86.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470743386.ch13
  23. 23.
    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (2009) Subgroup analyses. In: Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (eds) Introduction to meta-analysis, 1st edn. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., UK, pp 149–186.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470743386.ch19 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (2009) Identifying and quantifying heterogeneity. In: Borenstein M, Hedges LV, Higgins JP, Rothstein HR (eds) Introduction to meta-analysis. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., UK, pp 107–125.  https://doi.org/10.1002/9780470743386.ch16 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Petersen PE (2003) The World Oral Health Report 2003: continuous improvement of oral health in the 21st century—the approach of the WHO Global Oral Health Programme. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 31(s1):3–24.  https://doi.org/10.1046/j..2003.com122.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Worsley DJ, Marshman Z, Robinson PG, Jones K (2016) Evaluation of the telephone and clinical NHS urgent dental service in Sheffield. Community Dent Health 33(1):9–14.  https://doi.org/10.1922/CDH PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Morou-Bermudez E, Elias-Boneta A, Billings RJ, Burne RA, Garcia-Rivas V, Brignoni-Nazario V, Suárez-Pérez E (2011) Urease activity as a risk factor for caries development in children during a three-year study period: a survival analysis approach. Arch Oral Biol 56(12):1560–1568.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.archoralbio.2011.06.017 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Shu M, Morou-Bermudez E, Suárez-Pérez E, Rivera-Miranda C, Browngardt CM, Chen YY, Magnusson I, Burne RA (2007) The relationship between dental caries status and dental plaque urease activity. Oral Microbiol Immunol 22(1):61–66.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1399-302X.2007.00325.x
  29. 29.
    Sissons CH, Cutress TW, Pearce EI (1985) Kinetics and product stoichiometry of ureolysis by human salivary bacteria and artificial mouth plaques. Arch Oral Biol 30(11-12):781–790.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-9969(85)90132-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    He J, Hwang G, Liu Y, Gao L, Kilpatrick-Liverman L, Santarpia P, Zhou X, Koo H (2016) L-arginine modifies the exopolysaccharides matrix and thwarts Streptococcus mutans outgrowth within mixed-species oral biofilms. J Bacteriol 198:JB.00021-16Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Cheng X, Xu P, Zhou X, Deng M, Cheng L, Li M, Li Y, Xu X (2015) Arginine promotes fluoride uptake into artificial carious lesions in vitro. Aust Dent J 60(1):104–111.  https://doi.org/10.1111/adj.12278 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Srisilapanan P, Korwanich N, Yin W, Chuensuwonkul C, Mateo LR, Zhang YP, Cummins D, Ellwood RP (2013) Comparing the efficacy of a dentifrice containing 1.5% arginine and 1450ppm fluoride to a dentifrice containing 1450ppm fluoride alone in the management of primary root caries. J Dent 41(Suppl 2):S29–S34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2010.04.005 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kraivaphan P, Amornchat C, Triratana T, Mateo LR, Ellwood R, Cummins D, DeVizio W, Zhang YP (2013) Two-year caries clinical study of the efficacy of novel dentifrices containing 1.5% arginine, an insoluble calcium compound and 1,450 ppm fluoride. Caries Res 47(6):582–590.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000353183 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Margulis AV, Pladevall M, Riera-Guardia N, Varas-Lorenzo C, Hazell L, Berkman ND, Viswanathan M, Perez-Gutthann S (2014) Quality assessment of observational studies in a drug-safety systematic review, comparison of two tools: the Newcastle-Ottawa scale and the RTI item bank. Clin Epidemiol 6:981–993.  https://doi.org/10.2147/CLEP.S66677
  35. 35.
    von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, STROBE Initiative (2007) Strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. BMJ 335:806–808.  https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.39335.541782.AD

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Pediatric Dentistry Unit, Pediatric Dentistry and Orthodontics, Faculty of DentistryThe University of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

Personalised recommendations