Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 22, Issue 4, pp 1805–1816 | Cite as

How frequent does peri-implantitis occur? A systematic review and meta-analysis

  • Mia RakicEmail author
  • Pablo Galindo-Moreno
  • Alberto Monje
  • Sandro Radovanovic
  • Hom-Lay Wang
  • David Cochran
  • Anton Sculean
  • Luigi Canullo
Original Article



The objective of this study is to estimate the overall prevalence of peri-implantitis (PI) and the effect of different study designs, function times, and implant surfaces on prevalence rate reported by the studies adhering to the case definition of Sanz & Chapple 2012.

Material and methods

Following electronic and manual searches of the literature published up to February 2016, data were extracted from the studies fitting the study criteria. Meta-analysis was performed for estimation of overall prevalence of PI while the effects of the study design, function time, and implant surface type on prevalence rate were investigated using meta-regression method.


Twenty-nine articles were included in this study. The prevalence rate in all subset meta-analyses was always higher at patient level when compared to the prevalence rate at the implant level. Prevalence of PI was 18.5% at the patient level and 12.8% at the implant level. Meta-regression analysis did not identify any association for different study designs and function times while it was demonstrated the significant association between moderately rough surfaces with lower prevalence rate of PI (p = 0.011).


The prevalence rate of PI remains highly variable even following restriction to the clinical case definition and it seems to be affected by local factors such as implant surface characteristics. The identification of adjuvant diagnostic markers seems necessary for more accurate disease classification.

Clinical relevance

The occurrence of PI is affected by local factors such as implant surface characteristics hence the careful assessment of the local factors should be performed within treatment planning.


Peri-implantitis Prevalence Dental implants Epidemiology 


Funding information

This study was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science, Republic of Serbia in Belgrade, Serbia (project references: no. 41008 and no. 173056).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.PerioInserm group, INSERM UMR 1229-RMESUniversity of NantesNantes Cedex 1France
  2. 2.Institute for Biological Research “Sinisa Stankovic”University of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.Department of Oral Surgery and Implant Dentistry, School of DentistryUniversity of GranadaGranadaSpain
  4. 4.Department of Periodontics and Oral MedicineThe University of MichiganAnn ArborUSA
  5. 5.Faculty of Organizational SciencesUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  6. 6.Department of PeriodonticsUniversity of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Dental SchoolSan AntonioUSA
  7. 7.Department of Periodontology, School of Dental MedicineUniversity of BernBernSwitzerland
  8. 8.Private PracticeRomeItaly

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