Root canal morphology and variations in mandibular second molar teeth of an Indian population: an in vivo cone-beam computed tomography analysis
- 359 Downloads
This study aims to investigate the root canal morphology of permanent mandibular second molars of an Indian population in vivo using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.
CBCT images (n = 983; males = 489, females = 494) of untreated, completely developed permanent mandibular second molar teeth were examined. CBCT scans were acquired as part of diagnosis and treatment planning for treatments unrelated to the present study. The number of roots and root canals were recorded. Canal configuration was classified based on Vertucci’s and Fan’s classifications.
The most common configuration was two-root (79.35%) and three-root canals (53.50%). The incidence of three-rooted molars was 7.53%, whereas 13.12% of the studied teeth studied have fused roots with C-shaped canals. The predominant canal morphology in the mesial roots was Vertucci’s type IV (45.17%), followed by type II (32.55%), type I (7.23%), type V (1.02%), and type III (0.91%). The distal root in contrast showed type I (61.14%) as the predominant canal configuration, followed by type II (18.21%) and type IV (7.53%). The incidence of three-rooted molars was higher in males (n = 55; 5.59%) than in females (n = 19; 1.94%) (p < 0.01). The canals in the extra roots exhibited type I (100%) root canal morphology. In teeth with C-shaped root canal (13.12%), the variations in the coronal, middle, and apical third ranged from C1 to C4.
Root canal systems of the mesial roots of mandibular second molars of the study population demonstrated a high degree of variability. While three roots were rare, there was a sexual predisposition. Fused roots with C-shaped canals were rare and demonstrated significant variations from the coronal to apical third.
Root canal morphology can demonstrate variations based on race and sex of patients. Clinicians must always consider the possible variations to ensure successful endodontic treatment.
KeywordsAnatomy CBCT Mandibular second molars Morphology Root canal
Compliance with ethical standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
The work was supported by the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra India, and Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai, Maharashtra India.
All applicable institutional guidelines for the care and use of CBCT scans were followed for this retrospective study.
For this type of study, formal consent is not required.
- 21.Neelakantan P, Subbarao C, Subbarao VC (2010) Comparative evaluation of modified canal staining and clearing technique, cone-beam computed tomography, peripheral quantitative computed tomography, spiral computed tomography, and plain and contrast medium-enhanced digital radiography in studying root canal morphology. J Endod 36:1547–1551CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 33.Jahromi ZM, Golestan JF, Esmaeli MM, Zahed M, Sarami M (2013) Root and canal morphology of mandibular second molar in an Iranian population by clearing method. J Dent Shiraz Univ Med Scien 14:78–81Google Scholar
- 45.Weine FS (2004) Intracanal treatment procedures, basic and advanced topics. In: Weine FS (ed) Endodontic therapy, 6th edn. Mosby, St. Louis, pp 164–239Google Scholar
- 51.Zare Jahromi M, Jafari Golestan F, Mashhadi Esmaeil M, Moouavizahed S, Sarami M (2013) Root and canal morphology of mandibular second molar in an Iranian population by clearing method. J Dent (Shiraz) 14:78–81Google Scholar
- 52.Ladeira DB, Cruz AD, Freitas DQ, Almeida SM (2014) Prevalence of C-shaped root canal in a Brazilian subpopulation: a cone-beam computed tomography analysis. Braz Oral Res 28:39–45Google Scholar
- 53.Barsness SA, Bowles WR, Fok A, Mc Clanahan SB, Harris SP (2015) An anatomical investigation of the mandibular second molar using micro-computed tomography. Surg Radiol Anat 37:267–72Google Scholar
- 54.Kim SY (2015) Mandibular second molar root canal morphology and variants in a Korean subpopulation J Endod10:1–9Google Scholar