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Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 21, Issue 9, pp 2801–2809 | Cite as

Root canal morphology and variations in mandibular second molar teeth of an Indian population: an in vivo cone-beam computed tomography analysis

  • Ajinkya Mansing Pawar
  • Mansing Pawar
  • Anda Kfir
  • Shishir Singh
  • Prashant Salve
  • Bhagyashree Thakur
  • Prasanna Neelakantan
Original Article

Abstract

Objectives

This study aims to investigate the root canal morphology of permanent mandibular second molars of an Indian population in vivo using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images.

Methods

CBCT images (n = 983; males = 489, females = 494) of untreated, completely developed permanent mandibular second molar teeth were examined. CBCT scans were acquired as part of diagnosis and treatment planning for treatments unrelated to the present study. The number of roots and root canals were recorded. Canal configuration was classified based on Vertucci’s and Fan’s classifications.

Results

The most common configuration was two-root (79.35%) and three-root canals (53.50%). The incidence of three-rooted molars was 7.53%, whereas 13.12% of the studied teeth studied have fused roots with C-shaped canals. The predominant canal morphology in the mesial roots was Vertucci’s type IV (45.17%), followed by type II (32.55%), type I (7.23%), type V (1.02%), and type III (0.91%). The distal root in contrast showed type I (61.14%) as the predominant canal configuration, followed by type II (18.21%) and type IV (7.53%). The incidence of three-rooted molars was higher in males (n = 55; 5.59%) than in females (n = 19; 1.94%) (p < 0.01). The canals in the extra roots exhibited type I (100%) root canal morphology. In teeth with C-shaped root canal (13.12%), the variations in the coronal, middle, and apical third ranged from C1 to C4.

Conclusions

Root canal systems of the mesial roots of mandibular second molars of the study population demonstrated a high degree of variability. While three roots were rare, there was a sexual predisposition. Fused roots with C-shaped canals were rare and demonstrated significant variations from the coronal to apical third.

Clinical relevance

Root canal morphology can demonstrate variations based on race and sex of patients. Clinicians must always consider the possible variations to ensure successful endodontic treatment.

Keywords

Anatomy CBCT Mandibular second molars Morphology Root canal 

Notes

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Funding

The work was supported by the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology and Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Government Dental College and Hospital, Mumbai, Maharashtra India, and Nair Hospital Dental College, Mumbai, Maharashtra India.

Ethical approval

All applicable institutional guidelines for the care and use of CBCT scans were followed for this retrospective study.

Informed consent

For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ajinkya Mansing Pawar
    • 1
  • Mansing Pawar
    • 2
  • Anda Kfir
    • 3
  • Shishir Singh
    • 4
  • Prashant Salve
    • 5
  • Bhagyashree Thakur
    • 6
  • Prasanna Neelakantan
    • 7
  1. 1.Department of Conservative Dentistry and EndodonticsNair Hospital Dental CollegeMumbaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Conservative Dentistry and EndodonticsGovernment Dental College and HospitalMumbaiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Endodontology, The Goldschleger School of Dental MedicineTel Aviv UniversityTel AvivIsrael
  4. 4.Department of Conservative Dentistry and EndodonticsTerna Dental College and HospitalNavi MumbaiIndia
  5. 5.Department of Oral Medicine and RadiologyNair Hospital Dental CollegeMumbaiIndia
  6. 6.Department of DentistrySir H N Reliance Foundation HospitalMumbaiIndia
  7. 7.Discipline of Endodontics, Faculty of DentistryUniversity of Hong KongHong KongHong Kong

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