Clinical Oral Investigations

, Volume 21, Issue 8, pp 2561–2568 | Cite as

Bisphenol A concentration in human saliva related to dental polymer-based fillings

  • T. L. L. Berge
  • G. B. Lygre
  • B. A. G. Jönsson
  • C. H. Lindh
  • L. Björkman
Original Article



The aims of this study were to quantify salivary concentrations of bisphenol A (BPA) and to assess if presence of dental composite fillings is associated with higher BPA levels in saliva.

Materials and methods

Twenty individuals with six or more tooth surfaces filled with polymer-based dental materials (composite group) and 20 individuals without any polymer-based materials (control group) were included in the study. Saliva was collected in polypropylene tubes and stored at −80 °C before analysis. Concentration of free (unconjugated) and total bisphenol A was determined by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS). Values below limit of detection (0.1 ng/mL) were set to one-half of the limit of detection. Mann-Whitney U test (one sided; the Exact Tests Option in IBM-SPSS version 21) was used for the statistical analyses.


The concentration of BPA in saliva was very low. In the composite group, 8 of 20 samples had detectable concentrations of BPA. In the control group, 3 of 20 samples had detectable concentrations of BPA. Statistical analysis indicated that the concentration of unconjugated BPA was slightly higher in the composite group (p = 0.044) than in the control group.


Presence of dental composites may be associated with slightly higher concentration of unconjugated BPA in saliva. However, additional studies using sensitive analytical methods are needed before firm conclusions can be drawn. Influence from other factors, like food intake and time of the day for saliva sampling, must be considered.

Clinical relevance

The relative contribution of existing polymer-based dental fillings to total BPA exposure seems to be low.


Bisphenol A Human saliva Dental polymer-based fillings Composite resins 



The authors want to give a special thanks to the participants of this study. Support from The Public Dental Services in Hordaland County and skilful help from personnel at the dental clinics (Årstad, Nesttun and SiB/Student welfare organization in Bergen) are gratefully acknowledged. We also acknowledge Margareta Maxe for performing skilful technical assistance with the analyses of BPA. The Norwegian Dental Biomaterials Adverse Reaction Unit and the Oral Health Centre of Expertise in Western Norway are funded by the Norwegian Ministry of Health and Care Services. The study was supported by a grant from the Norwegian Directorate of Health.

Authors’ contributions

LB conceived the study and TLLB, LB and GBL designed the study protocol. TLLB was responsible for the clinical part of the study and for the application to the Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics. BAGJ and CHL developed the analytical method and were responsible for the analysis of BPA. TLLB wrote the first draft of the manuscript. All authors have critically reviewed and contributed to the manuscript. The final version was approved by all authors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


The work was supported by the Norwegian Directorate of Health.

Ethical approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. The study protocol was reviewed and approved by The Regional Committee for Medical Research Ethics, South-East Norway (REK 2012/602).

Informed consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

784_2017_2055_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (153 kb)
ESM 1 (PDF 152 kb).


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Dental Biomaterials Adverse Reaction Unit, Uni Research HealthBergenNorway
  2. 2.Oral Health Centre of Expertise in Western NorwayHordaland, BergenNorway
  3. 3.Division of Occupational and Environmental MedicineLund UniversityLundSweden
  4. 4.Department of Clinical DentistryUniversity of BergenBergenNorway

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